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EL1101E/GEK1011 The Nature of Language Week 11, Tutorial 9 Colloquial Singapore English and Contact Linguistics.

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Presentation on theme: "EL1101E/GEK1011 The Nature of Language Week 11, Tutorial 9 Colloquial Singapore English and Contact Linguistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 EL1101E/GEK1011 The Nature of Language Week 11, Tutorial 9 Colloquial Singapore English and Contact Linguistics

2 CONTACT LINGUISTICS AND SINGAPORE ENGLISH Question 1

3 A pidgin is a simplified form of speech which arises to fulfil certain restricted communication needs among people who have no common language. Example: Chinese Pidgin English

4 English: Can you do it? Mandarin: 可以不可以 ? CPE: Can do, no can do? Example: Chinese Pidgin English (CPE)

5 A creole arises when a pidgin becomes the mother tongue of a speech community, the next generation grow up speaking this language as their first language. Example: Jamaican Creole aka Patois

6 Singapore English is a ‘creoloid’ because 1. It has similar structural variables to post-creoles based on the same ‘standard’ language. 2. Did not develop from a pidgin but by some other process. 3. It developed from the transference of features into the ‘standard’ language from the languages of several (sometimes unrelated) ethnic groups. 4. The superordinate language is usually only one of the official languages. 5. It is usually also used as lingua franca in inter-ethnic group communication within the speech community where it is one of the sub-varieties. (Platt, 1975)

7

8 Part 2B) African Pidgin/Carribean Creole Singapore English Slave History (different languages) Colonial ruling meets multilingual people Need for common language among workers and between slave-masters English-medium Straits Settlement schools Sole means of expression Separate Mother Tongue still spoken

9 NP ELLIPSIS AND SUBSTRATIST EXPLANATION Question 2

10 What is noun phrase ellipsis? It refers to subject, object and possessor omission in Colloquial Singapore English.

11 Subject Omission Standard English: After one gets sick, one cannot help it. Colloquial Singapore English: After Ø get some sickness, Ø can’t help it. The subject “one” is ommited

12 Object Omission Standard English: ‘I have never tried it before.’ Colloquial Singapore English: I never try Ø before lah. The object ‘it’ is ommited.

13 Possessor omission Standard English: ‘My head is painful.’ Colloquial Singapore English: Ø Head very pain. The possessor ‘my’ is ommited

14 So where did noun phrase ellipsis in Colloquial Singapore English originate from?

15 Subject Omission Standard English: How do I get to Malacca Train Station? Hokkien: Ba la ka cia tau bhe an zua ki Malacca station will how go The subject ‘I’ is ommited

16 Subject Omission Standard English: I remember, when I was still small, I often went fishing. Malay: Ingat-ingat, waktu masih kecil, sering pergi memancing remember when still small often go fishing The subject ‘I’ is omitted

17 Object Omission Standard English: I have never tried it before Chinese: Wo mei shi guo I never try before The object ‘it’ is omitted

18 Object Omission Standard English: I have never tried it before Malay: tidak pernah cuba sebelum ini Never tried before The object ‘it’ is omitted

19 Possessor Omission Standard English: My head is painful Mandarin: tou hen tong Head very painful The possessor ‘my’ is omitted

20 Possessor Omission Standard English: My head is painful Cantonese: Tao ho tong wor Head very pain The possessor “my” is omitted

21 In our examples, we see that noun phrase ellipsis can be found in Malay Mandarin Hokkien Cantonese Noun phrase ellipsis in CSE does come from both Malay and varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin, Hokkien and Cantonese.

22 PRAGMATICS OF SENTENCE-FINAL PARTICLES Question 3

23 Example 1 - LAH Do you love me? Yes, I love you! Do you REALLY love me? I REALLY love you LAH! Function: Aggressive statement of emotion

24 Example 1 - LEH Do you love me? Yes, I love you! Do you REALLY love me? I REALLY love you LEH! Function: Makes the sentence sounds softer than the previous

25 Example 1 - LOR Do you love me? Yes, I love you! Do you REALLY love me? I tell you how many times already! I REALLY love you LOR! Function: Resigned expression of a feuding spouse which has no choice

26 Can help me do this survey? You’ll stand to win attractive prizes! Huh? Are you sure can win? Really! There’s something here for everyone LAH. Example 2(a) - LAH Function: Appeal for accommodation. Persuade you to help to do the survey.

27 What LAH! Example 2(a) - LAH Function: Mood marker (annoyance) The mood or attitude being conveyed will depend on specific contextual factors. OI! Can help me with this question?

28 We’re going to catch a movie. Do you want to join us? Example 2(a) - LAH Maybe not, I have a lot of assignments due this week. Just come with us LAH! Function: Soften the force of an utterance “Come with us”  A request “Come with us LAH”  makes it more polite and persuasive

29 Example 2(b) - WHAT Function: Indicate obviousness that the person asking the question did not think twice about it. Marks contradiction - A thinks that B can park here but B replies that he can’t cause there are no other cars around. No car parks here, WHAT. You stupid ah? Why you don’t just park here?

30 Example 2(b) - WHAT Function: Marks contradiction – Edelia and Gabrielle has different thoughts about the standard of Mabel’s cooking. Mabel’s cooking very lousy leh! But she can cook WHAT. Her fried rice very tasty!

31 Example 2(c) - HOR Function: Attempt to garner support for a proposition Yeah, super big and a lot of shops! I like it too! This shopping centre very nice HOR.

32 Example 2(c) - HOR Function: Attempt to garner support for a proposition (no response) That guy is always trying to take advantage of others. Never do his part for the group project. HOR? Yeah lor!!

33 Example 2(c) - HOR The use of HOR requires that the speaker assert a proposition. Hence, HOR is only found with questions which have a declarative form. You very rich hor ? I bought a prada wallet yesterday at the shopping centre!

34 Example 2(d) - MEH Function: Indicate skepticism/surprise Mabel thought that Gabrielle will choose book A instead of book B. Confirm? You don’t like that one (book A) MEH ? Which book should I buy? A or B ah? I think I’m going to get book B.

35 Example 2(d) - MEH Function: Indicates surprise Yeah! You didn’t know MEH ? Mabel! You can bake ah! Why you never tell me!

36 OWNSELF IN CSE = 自己 ’ZIJI’ IN CHINESE? Question 4

37 SINGLISH Chinese dialects Vernacular Malay 自己 (ZIJI) OWNSELF

38 Ownself is likely to have derived from ziji

39 Both exclude involvement of others Semantically, ziji can express a contrast between the ‘self’ in question and others who could be involved Zhe shi wo ziji zuo de! This is I ownself do one! {as opposed to having other people involved}

40 In imperatives, both do not require the subject (NP) to precede it Example 1 (You) Ownself open the door lah! Example 2 (Ni) ziji chi fan! (You) eat rice by yourself! Take note You can’t do this in English! You yourself open the door! *Yourself open the door!

41 Ownself is may not have derived from ziji

42 Ziji—regular reflexive Ziji can function like a regular reflexive (Used to refer back to the subject/object of the sentence) BUT ownself cannot function as a regular reflexive Example 4 Lisi is blaming himself. Lisi zai zebei (ta) ziji Example 3 He cut himself. *He cut ownself.

43 Overall Seems like they can replace each other Even though ziji is in fact a Chinese expression Based on example 1 Why you keep asking me! You ziji go open door lah! Why you keep asking me! You ownself go open door lah!

44 Conclusion Ownself is likely to have developed on the basis of the form and functions of the Chinese expression 自己 ‘self’ Although the functions of ziji seems to be wider

45 THANK YOU!

46 References Deterding, D. (2007). Dialects of english: Singapore english Edinburgh University Press. Sato, Y., & Kim, C. (2012). Radical pro drop and the role of syntactic agreement in colloquial singapore english. Lingua, 122(8), 858. Lim, L. (2004). Singapore English : A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co.) Nordquist, R. [Web log message]. Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April The British Library Board. [Web log message]. Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April Wee, L. (2007). Singapore English X-self and ownself. World Englishes, 26,

47 Platt, John T The Singapore English speech continuum and its basilect ‘Singlish’ as a ‘creoloid’. Anthropological Linguistics 17:363–374. BBC News. (1999, Aug 30). Singapore declares war on singlish. BBC News World: Asia-Pacific. Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April 2014.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/ stm The University of the West Indies. (n.d.). Creole languages of the caribbean. Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April Carons, T. A. & Onyioha, A. M. (n.d.). The origin of the pidgin. AfroStyle Magazine, Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April Richards, N. (2010, May 17). [Web log message]. Retrieved from Last accessed 1 April Versteegh, K. (2008). Non-indo-european pidgins and creoles. In S. Kouwenberg & V. Singler (Eds.), The handbook of pidgin and creole studies Retrieved from 7.pdf?v=1&t=hth5a2yf&s=8a9769c7c837c4c07f5b0bc1d66e74ace7488cb5 Last accessed 1 April pdf?v=1&t=hth5a2yf&s=8a9769c7c837c4c07f5b0bc1d66e74ace7488cb5


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