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N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCES D EPARTMENT OF AYUSH M INISTRY OF H EALTH & F AMILY W ELFARE G OVERNMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCES D EPARTMENT OF AYUSH M INISTRY OF H EALTH & F AMILY W ELFARE G OVERNMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 N.SRIKANTH ASSISTANT DIRECTOR CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCES D EPARTMENT OF AYUSH M INISTRY OF H EALTH & F AMILY W ELFARE G OVERNMENT OF I NDIA A ROMA THERAPY IN A YURVEDA C ONCEPT AND T HERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS 1

2 S TART OF PROCESS  Natural products  Botanical  Animal  Mineral origins from India have initiated the scientific quest of Drugs since antiquity. 2

3 S TART OF PROCESS E VOLUTION OF I NDIAN PHARMACOPEIA 3 PeriodPlantsRemarks on changesLiterature 3000 BC BC 289Building a Pharmacopoea (Atharvaveda) Vedic texts 1500 BC AD 650Incorporation / discarding drugs Ayurvedic Texts Charaka Samhita Sushrut Samhita Astanga Samgraha 500 AD AD 2000Incorporation / discarding drugs Varieties identified Substitutes identified Expansion in applications 16 major Nighantus (like Dhanvantari Bhavprakasha, Raja upto Shaligram) India is having the world’s richest flora, comprising of about 120 families of plants, comprising 1,30,000 species. Ayurvedic texts cover about 2400 species of plants with their medicinal uses as described by ancient Indian medical scholars. 10,000 herbs are used worldwide for medicinal purposes

4 Susruta’s Approach: Reverse Pharmacology  Test intervention (Tallingatwat)  Feasibility; observational design (Dristhaphalatwat)  System validation (Agamaatsya) 4 R OOTS OF C LINICAL E XPERIMENTATION AND D RUG T RIALS

5 Charaka’s Approach: Meticulous design & Emphasis on Reproducibility  Feasible ideology / Hypothesis (Budhi psyathi ya bhavaan)  Multi dimensional approach in planning & assessment (Bahu karana yogajaan)  Appropriate design (Yukti-Yogna)  Perpetually valid outcome and reproducibility (Yuktih trikalah) 5

6 S TART OF PROCESS  Some of the Ayurvedic plants  Interesting leads for drug discovery  Structural modifications of active principles leading to a cascade of new “chemical” drugs  In global use and pharmacology research 6

7 P HYTO C HEMICAL C LASS 7 Source: Ehrman et al, J Chem Inf Model 2007; 47(2):

8 M ARKET P OTENTIAL  Market comprising of Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha & Homoeopathic medicine is around US $ 1.5 billion  Rs 8800 Crore.  Approximate share of Ayurvedic formulations is 84% (Homeopathy 14%, Unani 2% and Siddha less than 1%.) 8

9 U SE OF T RADITIONAL M EDICINE 9 CHINA40% CHILE71% COLUMBIA40% INDIA80-90%* AUSTRALIA48% BELGIUM70% CANADA70% FRANCE49% USA42% UK70% NORTH IRELAND90% *Status and Role of AYUSH and Local Health Traditions Under National Rural Health Mission- Report of a Study; National Health Systems Resource Centre, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India New Delhi; 2010 WHO traditional medicine strategy Document WHO/EDM/TRM/2002.

10 A ROMA THERAPY  AROMA indicates Fragrance & therapy denotes treatment.  The therapy in which Aromatic material is used called Aromatherapy. 10

11 F OUR MAJOR AREAS OF APPLICATIONS 11 SNo.AreasDetails 1AestheticRole in beauty and skin care 2PsychologicalEffects on moods /feelings 3HolisticBody mind and sprit integration 4MedicalMaintenance of homoeostasis

12 A ROMA T HERAPY – H ISTORICAL P ERSPECTIVE 12 SNo.DetailsPeriod 1Vedic period3000 BC. 2Ayurveda samhitas1500 BC AD 3Egyptian papyri1555 BC 4Shine medical book2700 BC. 5Avicenna(Arabia)980 AD-1037AD 6.16 major Nighantus (like Dhanvantari Bhavprakasha, Raja upto Shaligram) 500 AD AD

13 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK  Antiquity of use of medicinal and aromatic plants, poly herbal, mineral based formulations for therapeutic and cosmetic purpose goes back to the Vedic period  Vedic literatures recount about  Nutritive  Immune enhancing actions attributed to aromatic properties 13 ‘Sugandhim Pustivardhanam’

14  A mention of importance of cosmetics is highlighted in Mantras and descriptions on gods and goddesses.  Number of Aromatic plants/ preparations have been in use for  Psychosomatic disorders  As antimicrobial agents  As antiseptics 14 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

15  Description of medicinal and cosmetic utility plants viz  Kustha (Sassurea lappa)  Chandana (Santalam album)  Kumkum (Crocus sativus) can be traced from oldest Indian literatures like Upanishads, epics, etc.  Many cosmetics are described which are aromatic in nature. 15

16 16  Lord Dhanvantari the God of Ayurveda is the Incarnation of Lord Vishnu.  Their description denotes the importance and uses of Aromatic material like  Kasturi Tilakam  Chandan Lepanam etc.  Gandhamadan, a mountain named after so, harboring ample fragrant plants (Ramayan, Vagbhata) A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

17 17 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

18 18 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

19 19 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

20 20 ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

21 21 A ROMA THERAPY - H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

22 C ONCEPT OF A ROMA IN A YURVEDA  Aroma - as an integral component of Prithvi Mahabhuta attributed with Gandha Guna (fragrance)  Categorized as  Surabhi (compatible )  Asurabhi(incompatible)  Therapeutic Value:A number of aromatic plant, animal & mineral sources attributed with medicinal value.  Relevance in Anatomical applications (Phana Marma) 22

23 C ONCEPT ….  Specific pharmaceutical dosage forms to retain the aroma of the drugs. (Arka, Hima, Phanta etc.)  Numerous pharmaceutical & clinical applications  Special routes of administration of dosage forms pertaining to aromatic properties  Personal, Social & Environmental Hygiene and preventive health care 23

24 A PPLICATIONS OF A ROMA T HERAPY IN A YURVEDA  Ayurvedic literatures mention the following wide-ranging applications of Aroma in Health Care System:  Preventive health  Environmental Health  Public health  Pharmaceuticals  Therapeutics 24

25 A PPLICATIONS IN P REVENTIVE H EALTH  Utility of garlands enriched with aromatic flowers as a part of daily regime (Ch. Su. 5/96)  Inhaling flavors/fumes of aromatic medicinal plants as a daily regime  Prescribed to stay in gardens having aromatic flowers in summer seasons as a part of seasonal regime  Fumigation of clothing with aromatic plants/products  Avoidance of exposure to excessive/improper smells/flavors 25

26 A PPLICATIONS IN E NVIRONMENTAL & P UBLIC H EALTH  Purification of water with aromatic herbs  Fumigating the environment with aromatic plants/products to prevent epidemics/infectious diseases  Sterilizing the labour rooms, Pediatric wards & OTs with antimicrobial aromatic plants (Dashang Dhoopa) 26

27 A PPLICATIONS IN P HARMACEUTICS  Evolution of specialized dosage forms for aromatic herbs to retain their medicinal properties (Arka etc.)  Fumigating the containers with aromatic plants/products to prevent contamination & infestations  Sterilizing the Drug store rooms, with Anti- microbial aromatic plants  Determining the pharmaceutical specifications/end-points of manufacturing processes of various dosage forms (Avaleha & medicated oil/ghee etc) 27

28 A PPLICATIONS IN P HARMACEUTICS  Addition of aromatic excipients/Treatment of distillates of aromatic medicinal herbs according to targeted indications (Arka) - For Vata Disorders : Guggulu - For Pitta Disorders : Chandana - For Kapha Disorders : Jatamamsi  Use of aromatic excipients for patients’ compliance/acceptability  Treating the oils with aromatic plants/products before utilizing them for manufacture (taila and ghrita murchana) 28

29 A PPLICATIONS IN T HERAPEUTICS  Fumigation for wound-healing  Fumigation to prevent & manage infectious & contagious diseases  Induction of emesis (Madanaphala-Lotus)  Aphrodisiac agents 29 Nardostachys jatamansi

30  Nasal Administration of certain medicaments  Management of headache  Management of psychotic disorders to restore the consciousness e.g. Restoring consciousness of Lakshman is an example of application of aromatic nasal medicaments as narrated in Ramayana. 30 A PPLICATIONS IN T HERAPEUTICS

31 31 S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC M EDICINAL P LANTS

32 32 Aromatic PlantTherapeutic Indication Karpoora (Cinnamomum camphora) Ophthalmic Use, Obesity Kasturi(Moschus moschiferus)Eye, Perfumes Chandana (Santalum album)Cardiac tonic, Cosmetic Aguru (Aquaria agalocha) Eye and Ear Diseases Kunkuma (Crocus sativus)Hiccough, headache, Wound healing, Cosmetic purposes Jatiphala (Mysterica fragrans)Throat problems, Anti- infective, cough, cold S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC M EDICINAL P LANTS

33 33 Aromatic PlantTherapeutic Indication Jatipatri (Mysterica fragrans)Anti-toxic, Anti-infective Lavanga (Syzigium aromaticum)Eye diseases, Cardiac tonic Ela (Elatorum cardamomum)Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders, cardiac & urinary disorders Tamalapatra (Cinnamonum tamala) Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders, cardiac & urinary disorders Twak(Syzigium zeylanicum)Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders, cardiac & urinary disorders Nagakeshara (Mesua feria)Perfume, Skin diseases, S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC M EDICINAL P LANTS

34 34 Aromatic PlantTherapeutic Indication Talisapatra(Abbies webiana)Respiratory Diseases, Arthritis, Jatamansi (Nordostachys jatamamsi) Blood purifier, Skin disorders Usheera(Vetivaria zizanoides)Skin diseases, Wound healing, Urinary problems, Guggulu(Commiphora mukul)Wound healing, Obesity, Arthritis, Skin diseases Shathi (Curcuma zedoria)Skin diseases, Blood purifier Tagara(Valleriana wallichi)Anti-infective, Anti-toxic, eye diseases S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC M EDICINAL P LANTS

35 35 Aromatic PlantTherapeutic Indication Padma (Nulimbo nucifera)Blood Purifier, Anti-toxic, skin diseases Jati (Jasminum humile)Wound healing, Dental problems, Blood purifier Champaka (Michelia champa) Urinary disorders, blood purifier Tulasi(Ocimum sanctum)Skin diseases, Urinary disorders, Blood purifier, Anti-infective S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC M EDICINAL P LANTS

36 36 T HERAPEUTIC V ALUES O F E SSENTIAL OILS

37 37  Arka prakasha, ancient book on Ayurveda contributed by Ravana has elaborated the importance of - therapeutic utility of essential oils -pharmaceutical SOPs for preparations of distillates from aromatic plants for topical and internal use.

38 R OLE OF E SSENTIAL OILS IN A ROMA THERAPY 38  Skin health care  Emotional care(Relieving stress)  Respiratory diseases  Muscular pain  Digestive disorders  Anti-inflammatory  Hormonal balance

39 R OLE OF A ROMA …… 39  Aroma therapy may acts as:  An add on or adjuvant therapy with conventional medicine  Supports emotionally during main therapy

40 C LASSIFICATION OF A ROMATIC D RUGS Aromatic Drugs may be Organic or Inorganic Organic –Animal Origin  Musk  Ambar (Dried Intestinal material of whale) Inorganic  Clay from specific places like Padmaj Panka. (Mud surrounding Lotus).  Multani Mitti 40

41 H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL 41  Pandanus odorotissinus – ketaki  Jasminum officinale – Jati  Rosa centifolia – Taruni  Cinnamomum – Dalchini  Cummin Seeds – Jiram  Alpinia galanga – Kulinjan’

42 42 Cyperus Rotundus – Nut grass Curcuma longa – Haldi Sussurea lappa – kushtha Nelumbo nucifera –Sacred lotus Santalum Album – Sandlewood Citrus medica – Matulunga Aqualaria agollocha – Agaru Crocus sativus – Kesar H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL

43 43 Curcuma longa

44 44 Pterocarpus santalum – Red Sandal Butea monosperma – Palash Nymphaea stellata – Nilkamal Zingiber officinale - Dry ginger Cidrus Deodara – Deodar Michelia chapaca– Champa H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL

45 45 Vetivera zizanioidis – Ushira Shorea robusta - Sarjarasa (Ral) Piper longum – Pippali Piper nigrum – Maricha Madhuca indica – Mahuva Cinnamonum tamala - Tejpatra H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL

46 46 Mesua ferrea – Nagkesar Callicarpa macrophylla – Priyangu Psoralia corylifolia – Bakuchi Feronia limonia – Kapittha patra Nardostachys jatamansi – Jatamansi Anethumsova – Shatpushpa Ellettaria cardamonum – Ela Parmelia perlata – stone flowers (clove) H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL

47 47 Nardostachys jatamansi Mesua ferrea

48 A YURVEDIC PREPARATIONS CONTAINING A ROMATIC HERBS  Most of the above class drugs are described in many diseases  But their main use is in  Respiratory  Cardiac  Aphrodisiac  Cosmetic &  Oral preparations 48

49 R ESPIRATORY A ROMATIC P REPARATIONS 49 Karpurasava Trijatakvati Tulsi tailam, Jivandhara inhalation

50 C ARDIAC A ROMATIC P REPARATIONS 50 Cinnamonum camphora Preparations Kasturibhairav Rasa, Kasturibhushan rasa Brihat Drakshasava Vidari Ghritam Kesharadivati Chaturbhujrasa

51 A ROMATIC O RAL & D ENTAL PREPARATIONS M OUTH F RESHENER / P ASTE /P OWDERS 51 Krishnadi chuarnam Jatipatradi churnam Dantarogashani churnam Pathadhy churnam Beejpur yoga Mundyadi churnam Kushthadi yoga Sarivapatra churnam

52 F ACIAL C OMPLEXION E NHANCER 52 Sharpunkhadi lepa Jatiphal lepa Lodhradi lepa Sarshapadi lepa Vatpatradi lepa Kunkumadi Lepa Vatadi Lepa Haritaladi Lepa Yavadi Lepa Ankolabijadi Lepa Jatiphaldi Lepa Chandanadi Lepa Aaranya tulsi Lepa

53 53 F ACIAL C OMPLEXION E NHANCER

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56 H AIR C ARE A ROMATIC P REPARATIONS 56 Gokshuradi lepa Nilopalodyo lepa Bhringadilepa Mansyadi lepa Ayorajadi lepa Madhukadi lepa Marsdenia tenacissima

57 Marichadi lepa Yashtyadi lepa Karanjali tailam Ral tailam Vachadi tailam Madan tailam Padmabijadi Yoga Eladilepa Karvirlepa Karpuradilepa Bhallatakadi lepa Marichadi lepa Vajravallilepa Shunthyadi lepa Marichadi lepa Vajravalli lepa Shunthyadi lepa Manhashivadi lepa Maharastripadi lepa H AIR C ARE A ROMATIC P REPARATIONS

58 A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS IN S EXUAL DISORDERS 58 Paninashak tailam Rativallabhakhya tailam Brahad bringaraj tailam Mahamasha tailam Gadhikaran yoga Gadhikaran lepa Sthulikaran lepa Ashvagandhaditailam Alambushadya tailam Karisadya tailam Ajaypal tailam Palashbij tailam

59 A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS – M ETHODS AND FORMS 59 Bath Add 5-6 drops of E.O. to almond base oil and add to your bath water. Hand & Foot bath Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to 5 ml. Pure almond oil/milk. Mix this with 200 ml. Warm water in a bowel and soak your hand or feet for minutes. Massage Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20 ml. of almond oil and use for massage, this is beneficial for massage of scalp and face but for other parts or whole body massage use ginger or coconut oil mixed with E.O.

60 A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS – M ETHODS AND FORMS 60 Massage Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20 ml. of almond oil and use for massage, this is beneficial for massage of scalp and face but for other parts or whole body massage use ginger or coconut oil mixed with E.O. Vaporisers Add 6-10 drops of selected E.O. to warm water in oil burner and light it, the generated vapors will give desired effects.

61 61 Inhalations Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to a bowl of boiling water, cover your head and the bowl with towel, the vaporized steam will act through respiration. Infusions Used for delicate aromatic herbs, leaves, flowers etc. Preparing an infusion is like making a cup of tea. The boiled water poured over an herb or mixture of herbs, it is covered to 10 to 15 minutes and then can be consuming. Decoctions This is used for tougher and more fibrous plant material. Instead of steeping in hot water, the plant material is boiled for a longer time to soften the hard woody material and release active constituents. A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS – M ETHODS AND FORMS

62 62 Tinctures A tincture is an alcohol and water extract used when the plants active chemicals are not very soluble in water. The shelf-life of tinctures is more. Macerations Dried aromatic plant material is covered in cool water and soaked overnight. The herb strained oil and the liquid is taken. Poultices and compresses To relieve local pain or overcome poultices and compresses are used. A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS – M ETHODS AND FORMS

63 A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES 63 Aromatic Material Therapeutic Uses Tulsi Respiratory problems Mental fatigue and poor memory Useful in spastic muscle Relives mental tension Bergamot it is very much useful it contains more them 300 chemical constituents Acne, boils, cold sores, eczema, insect bites psoriasis, insect repellent, scabies, wound, ulcers, sore throat Depression refreshing mind Birch Muscle and joint pain Increase awareness in the sensory system Clove Useful in respiratory disorders Toothaches Improves oral hygiene

64 64 Coriander Anti-inflammatory Mild sedative action Cypress Anti-inflammatory Heals emotions Urinary diseases Davana Skin smoother Endocrine stimulator and improver Hormonal balance Anti-bacterial Dill Bronchitis Hepato-protective Supports pancreatic function Eucalyptus Health promoter Bronchitis, cold Oral hygiene Euphoric A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

65 65 Corupe front Digestive disorders Obesity Relieves negativity Helicrysum Tissue regenerative Analgesic Skin care Euphoric Hyssop Anti-inflammatory Anti-viral Mucolytic and expectorant Anti-parasitic Scat softening Anti-bacterial Jasmine Skin care Frigidity Depression Myalgia Enhances optimism Euphonic A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

66 66 Lavender Burns, rash, psoriasis Insomnia PMS Fennel Relieves PMS and menopausal symptoms Feels well being Detoxification Fir Arthritis Bronchitis Anti-infective Frankincense Used since time of Lord Christa Helps in meditation and spiritual awareness Galbanum Anti-viral Supports body strength A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

67 67 Ginger Arthritis Myalgia Congestion Bronchitis Indigestion Motion sickness Nausea Anti-inflammatory Lymphatic oesema Geranium Regenerate tissue and nerves Skin care Balancing hormones Release negative memories Lemon Digestive problems Air purifier Feels energetic Lemon Grass Digestive problems Regenerate connective tissue Creates awareness A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

68 68 Myrrh Skin care Bronchitis Oral hygiene Digestive problems Nutmeg Analgesic nausea anti-infective Overcome frigidity and Relieves nervous fatigue Orange Stomatitis Dyspepsia Cold Emotional support Patchouli Anti-rinkle Release anxiety Aphrodisiac Pipper Stimulates endocrine system Mucolytic and expectorant Arthritis Increases cellular oxygenation

69 Peppermint Nausea, vomiting Phyarangitis Oral hygiene Rose Detoxicating Brings body-mind balance Anti-haemorrhagic Prevention scarring Bronchitis Anti-urinkle Creating sense of well-being Sandalwood Similar to frankincense helps in meditation. Burning micturation Removes negative thinking Thyme Supports immune system Overcome physical weakness Digestive disorders White Lotus Spiritual and emotional support Supports immune system Anti-cancer Euphoric Pious feeling 69 A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

70 Chemical Compounds of Essential Oils Therapeutic Properties Aldehydes Releasing, calming and sedative, Anti-inflammatory Anti-septic, Anti-microbial Phenols Highly anti-septic and anti-microbial Stimulating immune system Sesquiterpenol Mood balancing, Anti-inflammatory Immune system enhancer Ketones Mind relaxer, Mucolytic and expectorant supporting respiratory system, Stimulates cell regeneration Esters Mind relaxer, Anti-spasmodic, Anti-fungal Alcohol Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral Monoterpenes Detoxifying, Diuretic, Anti-septic, Anti-viral, Anti-inflammatory Analgesic, Anti-spasmodic, Immunity stimulator Azulene Anti-histaminic, Highly anti-inflammatory, Promoting healing Bisabolol Is the strongest sesquifterpene, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti- inflammatory 70 A ROMATIC M ATERIAL & T HERAPEUTIC U SES

71 71 Chemical Compounds of Essential Oils Therapeutic Properties Aldehydes Releasing, calming and sedative, Anti-inflammatory Anti- septic, Anti-microbial Phenols Highly anti-septic and anti-microbial Stimulating immune system Sesquiterpenol Mood balancing, Anti-inflammatory Immune system enhancer Ketones Mind relaxer, Mucolytic and expectorant supporting respiratory system, Stimulates cell regeneration EstersMind relaxer, Anti-spasmodic, Anti-fungal AlcoholAnti-bacterial, Anti-viral Monoterpenes Detoxifying, Diuretic, Anti-septic, Anti-viral, Anti- inflammatory Analgesic, Anti-spasmodic, Immunity stimulator AzuleneAnti-histaminic, Highly anti-inflammatory, Promoting healing M AJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES

72 Bisabolol Is the strongest sesquifterpene, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti- inflammatory Flavonoids This group of compound is thoroughly researched and found Immunity enhancer, Anti-cancer, Preventing cardio-vascular disorders, Improves circulation, Maintains healthy status FarnesolHighly anti-inflammatory, Anti-bacterial Farnesence Highly anti-viral Limonene Highly anti-viral Terpene alcohols Highly anti-bacterial, Immunity enhancer Terpene hydrocarbons Highly anti-viral Thujone Mucolytic and expectorant, Immunity enhancer 72 M AJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES

73 S AFETY INFORMATION PERTAINING TO E SSENTIAL O ILS 73 Essential oils are powerful Highly concentrated oils can be harmful if misused. In general not to use undiluted essential oils on skin. Some E.O. can cause adverse reactions, better to do a skin patch test prior to use for the first time. Place a drop of the diluted E.O. on the inside of elbow, apply and bandage and wait for 24 hours to observe any reaction.

74 A DVERSE REACTIONS  Irritation -rashes, mild itching, burning. Vanishes if oil is discontinued  Sensitization: More serious then irritation can cause charges into immune by stem. If used body repeatedly then the body shows sensitization in the form of rashes, allergic reaction, itching etc.  Photo sensitization – Photo toxicity 74

75 A DVERSE REACTIONS E.O. causes a reaction to ultraviolet light. Reaction may be in the form of brown blotches to burning of the skin. The condition may persists for a longer period and may reoccur if exposed to ultraviolet light again. In pregnant condition Birch and winter green E.O. should be avoided as they are readily absorbed by the skin causing irritation. In epileptic patients the strong odour E.O. should be avoided as they may initiate an epileptic attack.  eg.Camphor, Fennel, Rosmary etc. 75

76 SOME OF THE E.O. SHOULD BE USED CAUTIOUSLY 76 E.O. causing Sensitization Balasm Benzoin resinod and oil Cinnamon bark oil Inula graveolens Rue oil Verbena E.O. causing photo sensitization Rue oil Bergamot oil E.O. with toxic action: Wosmseed (chenopodium) Tausy oil E.O. with carcinoglenic action: Calamus Sassafoas

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83 H OW A ROMA WORKS : A YURVEDIC AND CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDING 83 Affects body’s physiological system like digestive, respiratory etc. directly or indirectly peppermint, ginger, sandalwood etc. On skin – vasodilatation – producing warming effect. Through olfactory route effects brain, sending electrica messages directly into the limbic system resulting impacts on memory, learning, emotions, thinking and feeling etc. most of the scents calm the nervous system, uplift spirits, creates euphoria or sedation etc.

84 H OW A ROMA WORKS  Mainly Aroma works through the sense of olfaction  Olfactory sense is highly developed in some mammals like dog, rabbits, etc. called Macro- somative  but in man it is not well developed called micro-somative.  The sense of smell contributes greatly to the joy of life. 84

85 N ASAL ROUTE …….. 85

86 M ARMAS – ITS R OLE 86 PHANA MARMA SRINGATAKA MARMA

87 87 T HE LIMBIC AREA IS RESPONSIBLE FOR EMOTIONS, PLEASURE, MEMORY, HORMONAL BALANCE, FEAR, ETC

88 Scope And Limitations of Aroma Therapy 88  only Aroma therapy may not be a cure for all  it may not a complete therapy  It may be supplemented to other therapies  As add-on  Adjunct to conventional therapies

89 Thank you 89


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