2Basic Counselling Skills Attending BehaviourClosed and Open – ended QuestionsParaphraseSummaryReflection
3Attending Behaviour Orienting oneself physically and psychologically Encourages the other person to talkLets the client know you’re listeningConveys empathy
4What does attending behaviour look like? SHOVELERS: Face the other SquarelyH: Head NodsO: Adopt an Open PostureV: Verbal FollowingE: Speech patterns & VolumeL: Lean toward the otherE: Make Eye ContactR: Be relatively relaxed
5Pairs ExerciseIn pairs practice telling each other about your week for 2 minutes – how many attending skills can you apply?
6Open – Ended QuestionsQuestions that clients cannot easily answer with ‘Yes’, ‘No’ or one or two word responses‘What brings you here today?’‘How would you describe your health?’‘How did you feel when that happened?’‘What did you do when that happened?’‘What are your reasons for saying that?’
7Purposes of Open-Ended Questions To begin an interviewTo encourage client elaborationTo elicit specific examplesTo motivate clients to communicate
8Pairs ExerciseIn pairs 1 ask the other ‘How would you describe your day?’ See how long you can go until you ask a closed questionSwap positions and start again
9Closed Ended Questions Questions that the other can easily answer with a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ or one or two work response‘Are you going to get the test done?’‘Did you drink a lot of water today?’‘Do you drink alcohol often?’‘Do you exercise?’
10Purposes of Closed Ended Questions To obtain specific informationTo identify parameters of a problem or issueTo narrow the topic of discussionTo interrupt an overtalkative client
11Pairs exersiseIn pairs, 1 student ask the other ‘how was your day?’ discuss for 1 minute using closed ended questionsSwap and repeat the exercise.
12Group discussionHow did the Open Ended Questions feel as opposed to the Closed Ended Questions?
13Closed vs Open Ended Questions Are you nervous?How do you feel?Are you worried this isn’t quick fix?What do you think you might do if this is a long term issue?Is your stress levels high?How would you describe your stress?
14ParaphrasingThe counsellor rephrases the content of the clients messageExample:Client: ‘I know it doesn’t help my depression to sit around or stay in bed all day’Counsellor: ‘It sounds like you know you should avoid staying in bed or sitting around all day to help your depression’
15Purposes of Paraphrasing To convey that you are understanding him/herHelp the client by simplifying, focussing and crystallising what they saidMay encourage clients to elaborateProvide a check on level of accuracy of your understanding or perceptions
16When to use itWhen you have a hypothesis about what’s going on with the clientWhen the client is in a decision making conflictWhen the client has presented a lot of information and you feel confused.
17Steps in Paraphrasing1. Recall the message and restate it to yourself covertly2. Identify the content part of the message3. Select an appropriate beginningIe ‘it sounds like’ ‘so you think’ ‘I hear you saying’ ‘would I be right in hearing that’4. Translate the key content into your own words5. Confirm the paraphrase with the client
18Pairs Excercise 1 to discuss a recent dilemma about their day 1 to paraphraseSwap and repeat the exercise
19Reflection A verbal response to a client emotion Example; Client: ‘So many things are going on right now; another hectic semester has started, my dog is sick, my mum is too. I find myself running around trying to take care of everything. I’m not sure I’ve got the energy to take care of me as well’Counsellor: ‘You’re felling pretty overwhelmed by all the things going on right now’
20Purpose of a Reflection Helps clients:Feel understoodExpress more feelingsManage feelingsDiscriminate among various feelings
21Steps in a Reflection 1. Listen closely and observe behaviour - watch non verbal behaviour- verbally reflect the feelings back to the client2. Identify the feeling category3. Identify the intensity4. Mark the feeling and the intensity or a wordFeed back to the clientAdd content using the form ‘you feel ______, because______’Check for accuracy.
22Purposes of a SummaryTo tie together multiple elements of client messagesTo identify a common theme or patternTo interrupt excessive ramblingTo start a sessionTo end a sessionTo pace a sessionTo review progressTo serve as a transition when changing topics
23Steps in a summary 1. Recall key content and affect messages 2. Identify patterns or themes3. Use appropriate sentence stem and verbalise the summarisation responseIe ‘I get the sense...’ ‘the picture I’m getting’ ‘overall it seems’4. Summarise5. Assess the effectiveness of your summarisation
24Group ExerciseTo create a summary of your pairs day from all the information you have gathered in this session
25Self-DisclosureSelf-Disclosure falls under the notion of genuineness in Client Centered counseling, and can be a bit of a tricky area. Too much self-revelation and the client may lose respect for you; not enough and the client may think you are not a fellow human and cannot relate to their situation.
26Self Disclosure Guidelines Some good general guidelines about self disclosure:1. First impressions are lasting impressions. What you wear and what your office looks like speak volumes about you. Try to find a balance. If you are eccentric, tone it down; if you are a minimalist, soften things with a plant and a picture.2. Generally speaking, in the first session it is best not to reveal personal information about yourself. You don’t want the client to dislike you because of a non-essential disclosure.3. Less is best. The session is about the client. She or he is not there to hear about you and your challenges, or to discuss the things you’d like to talk about.4. If you do share an incident in your own life, make sure it’s one that had a positive resolution.
27Notetakingis the practice of writing down pieces of information, often in an shorthand and messy manner. The listener needs to be discreet and not disturb the flow of thought, speech or body language of the speaker.Do not allow note taking to break genuine and consistent eye contact
28Client Centred counsellors would not say they use techniques – rather they have an approach of being empathetic, accepting and truly “there” for the client. Having said that the following skills are central:• Active and empathic listening• Reflection of content and feelings• Genuineness which may include appropriate self-disclosure by counsellor