Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15, Section 3 Victory in Europe and the Pacific."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15, Section 3 Victory in Europe and the Pacific
1942 and 1943, Allies turned back the Axis advances. 1944 and 1945, Allies attack Germany from West and East; US advance across the Pacific to the doorstep of Japan Americans create a new form of weapon that changes both warfare and global politics
Planning Germany’s Defeat Throughout 1943, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin over when a second front would be started in France Up to that point Soviet troops had done most of the fighting in Europe. Stalin wanted Britain and US to carry more of the military burden; hoping to force Germany to divide its troops.
Planning Germany’s Defeat Roosevelt sympathized with Stalin’s position Churchill hesitated and delayed - Remembered slaughter of British troops on Western Front during WWI; did not want it repeated - argued German U-boat presence great in English Channel - felt Allies needed more land craft, equipment, and better-trained soldiers
Planning Germany’s Defeat November, 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill travel to Teheran to meet Stalin Churchill still hesitant about cross- channel invasion Roosevelt sides with Stalin 6 months after conference, plan to open second front becomes reality-code name “Operation Overlord”
D-Day Invasion of Normandy Overlord involved the most experienced of officers General Dwight David Eisenhower; Supreme Allied Commander General Bernard Montgomery, commander of the ground forces General Omar Bradley, led the US First Army
Eisenhower Plans the Invasion Overlord involved landing: -21 American divisions -26 British, Canadian and Polish divisions -all this on a 50 mile stretch of beaches in Normandy -comprised of more than 4,400 ships and landing crafts Plan involved 5 beaches in Normandy: 1.Utah 2.Omaha 3.Gold 4.Juno 5.Sword Plus an elaborate deception
Eisenhower Plans the Invasion Allies create fictional army under General George Patton Set up fake headquarters in southeast England across the English Channel from Calais; had wood and cardboard tanks, useless ships, detectable radio traffic Deception eventually works; Hitler orders top tank division to Calais
June 6, 1944 – D-Day; Allies hit Germany in force. More than 11,000 planes prepare the way, attempting To destroy German communication and transportation Networks and soften beach defenses At 6:30 am; after rough crossing of Channel, first troops land. On four beaches, landings lightly opposed; casualties relatively low Omaha, one of the two beaches assigned to US, Germans offer stiff opposition On cliffs overlooking beach, Germans dug trenches, built small concrete pillbox structures from which heavy artillery could be fired
Heroes Storm the Beaches Beaches covered with wide variety of deadly guns Beaches were heavily mined When first American soldiers landed, met with rainstorm of bullets, shells and death Some crafts dumped occupants too far from beach; soldiers weighted down by heavy packs, drowned.
Heroes Storm the Beaches One writer called D-Day the “Longest Day” By end of day, Allies gained toehold in France Within a month, more than million Allied troops had landed in Normandy.
Liberation of Europe After D-DAY, Germans faced two-fronted war: -Soviets soldiers were advancing steadily from the East; Germans forced out of: a. Latvia b. Romania c. Slovakia d. Hungary Germans lost the lands it once dominated and natural resources it once plundered
Allies Advance Allies on move from the West August 1944, Paris liberated Hitler ordered his generals to destroy the French capital -Generals disobeyed Hitler; left “City of Lights” as beautiful as ever. -Parisians celebrated -Allied troops kept advancing
Allies Advance A mood of hopelessness falls over Germany Rommel and other leading generals plot to overthrow Hitler -July 20, 1944, an officer planted a bomb at Hitler’s Headquarters -Explosion killed or wounded 20 people -Hitler escapes -Rommel takes poison to escape being put on trial -Claiming “fate” on his side; Hitler refuses to surrender to advancing troops.
Germany Counterattacks December 1944, Hitler ordered counterattack -Massed near the Ardennes -Scenario: English speaking German soldiers in US uniforms to cut telephone lines, change road signs, spread confusion * German tanks then take over communication and transportation hubs Counterattack known as “Battle of the Bulge” -Almost succeeded -Germans caught Allies by surprise -Created bulge in American line -Captured several key towns Snowy, cloudy skies prevented Allies from using air support
Germany Counterattacks At Belgium town of Bastogne; American forces hold despite frostbite and brutal German assaults. December 23, 1944, skies clear, Allied bombers attack German positions, reinforcements arrive, Allies back on the offensive
Germany Counterattacks “Battle of the Bulge” was a desperate attempt by Germans to drive wedge between American and British forces Instead, crippled Germany by using its reserves and demoralizing its troops German troops were pushed back into Germany and never went on the offensive again.
Allies Push to Victory January 1945, Soviet Army reaches Oder River outside Berlin Allies advanced northward in Italy April 1945, Mussolini tried to flee to Switzerland -was captured and executed American and British troops cross the Rhine River In April, a US army reached the Elbe River, 50 miles West of Berlin Allied forces now in position for all-out assault against Hitler’s capital
Allies Push to Victory Hitler now a physical wreck -Shaken by tremors -Paranoid from drugs -Kept alive by mad dreams of a final victory Hitler give orders that no one followed and planned campaigns no one would ever fight Finally, on April 30, 1945, Hitler and a few of his closest associates commit suicide. Hitler’s “Thousand Year Reich” had lasted only a dozen years.
Allies Push to Victory May 7, 1945, in a little French schoolhouse, that served as Eisenhower’s headquarters, Germany surrenders Americans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe) FDR did not see this day; died a few weeks earlier. Now up to new president, Harry Truman, to lead the country to final victory