Presentation on theme: "Victory in Europe and the Pacific"— Presentation transcript:
1 Victory in Europe and the Pacific Chapter 15, Section 3Victory in Europeandthe Pacific
2 1942 and 1943 , Allies turned back the Axis advances. 1944 and 1945, Allies attack Germany from West and East; US advance across the Pacific to the doorstep of JapanAmericans create a new form of weapon that changes both warfare and global politics
3 Planning Germany’s Defeat Throughout 1943, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin over when a second front would be started in FranceUp to that point Soviet troops had done most of the fighting in Europe.Stalin wanted Britain and US to carry more of the military burden; hoping to force Germany to divide its troops.
4 Planning Germany’s Defeat Roosevelt sympathized with Stalin’s positionChurchill hesitated and delayedRemembered slaughter of Britishtroops on Western Front duringWWI; did not want it repeatedargued German U-boat presencegreat in English Channelfelt Allies needed more land craft,equipment, and better-trainedsoldiers
5 Planning Germany’s Defeat November, 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill travel to Teheran to meet StalinChurchill still hesitant about cross-channel invasionRoosevelt sides with Stalin6 months after conference, plan to open second front becomes reality-code name “Operation Overlord”
6 D-Day Invasion of Normandy Overlord involved the most experienced of officersGeneral Dwight David Eisenhower; Supreme Allied CommanderGeneral Bernard Montgomery, commander of the ground forcesGeneral Omar Bradley, led the US First Army
7 Eisenhower Plans the Invasion Overlord involved landing:21 American divisions26 British, Canadian and Polish divisionsall this on a 50 mile stretch of beaches inNormandy-comprised of more than 4,400 ships andlanding craftsPlan involved 5 beaches in Normandy:UtahOmahaGoldJunoSwordPlus an elaborate deception
8 Eisenhower Plans the Invasion Allies create fictional army under General George PattonSet up fake headquarters in southeast England across the English Channel from Calais; had wood and cardboard tanks, useless ships, detectable radio trafficDeception eventually works; Hitler orders top tank division to Calais
10 Heroes Storm the Beaches June 6, 1944 – D-Day; Allies hit Germany in force.More than 11,000 planes prepare the way, attemptingTo destroy German communication and transportationNetworks and soften beach defensesAt 6:30 am; after rough crossing of Channel, first troopsland.On four beaches, landings lightly opposed; casualties relatively lowOmaha, one of the two beaches assigned to US, Germans offer stiff oppositionOn cliffs overlooking beach, Germans dug trenches, built small concrete pillbox structures from which heavy artillery could be fired
11 Heroes Storm the Beaches Beaches covered with wide variety of deadly gunsBeaches were heavily minedWhen first American soldiers landed, met with rainstorm of bullets, shells and deathSome crafts dumped occupants too far from beach; soldiers weighted down by heavy packs, drowned.
12 Heroes Storm the Beaches One writer called D-Day the “Longest Day”By end of day, Allies gained toehold in FranceWithin a month, more than million Allied troops had landed in Normandy.
13 Liberation of Europe After D-DAY, Germans faced two-fronted war: Soviets soldiers were advancing steadily from theEast; Germans forced out of:a. Latviab. Romaniac. Slovakiad. HungaryGermans lost the lands it once dominated and natural resources it once plundered
14 Allies Advance Allies on move from the West August 1944, Paris liberatedHitler ordered his generals to destroy the French capitalGenerals disobeyed Hitler; left “City of Lights” as beautifulas ever.Parisians celebratedAllied troops kept advancing
15 Allies Advance A mood of hopelessness falls over Germany Rommel and other leading generals plot to overthrow HitlerJuly 20, 1944, an officer planted a bomb atHitler’s Headquarters-Explosion killed or wounded 20 people-Hitler escapes-Rommel takes poison to escape being put ontrialClaiming “fate” on his side; Hitler refusesto surrender to advancing troops.
16 Germany Counterattacks December 1944, Hitler ordered counterattackMassed near the ArdennesScenario: English speaking German soldiers inUS uniforms to cut telephone lines, changeroad signs, spread confusion* German tanks then take over communicationand transportation hubsCounterattack known as “Battle of the Bulge”Almost succeededGermans caught Allies by surpriseCreated bulge in American lineCaptured several key townsSnowy, cloudy skies prevented Allies from using air support
17 Germany Counterattacks At Belgium town of Bastogne; American forces hold despite frostbite and brutal German assaults.December 23, 1944, skies clear, Allied bombers attack German positions, reinforcements arrive, Allies back on the offensive
18 Germany Counterattacks “Battle of the Bulge” was a desperateattempt by Germans to drive wedgebetween American and British forcesInstead, crippled Germany by using its reserves and demoralizing its troopsGerman troops were pushed back into Germany and never went on the offensive again.
19 Allies Push to VictoryJanuary 1945, Soviet Army reaches Oder River outside BerlinAllies advanced northward in ItalyApril 1945, Mussolini tried to flee to Switzerlandwas captured and executedAmerican and British troops cross the Rhine RiverIn April, a US army reached the Elbe River, 50 miles West of BerlinAllied forces now in position for all-out assault against Hitler’s capital
20 Allies Push to Victory Hitler now a physical wreck Shaken by tremors Paranoid from drugsKept alive by mad dreams of a final victoryHitler give orders that no one followed and planned campaigns no one would ever fightFinally, on April 30, 1945, Hitler and a few of his closest associates commit suicide.Hitler’s “Thousand Year Reich” had lasted only a dozen years.
21 Allies Push to VictoryMay 7, 1945, in a little French schoolhouse, that served as Eisenhower’s headquarters, Germany surrendersAmericans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe)FDR did not see this day; died a few weeks earlier.Now up to new president, Harry Truman, to lead the country to final victory