Presentation on theme: "Phthalates Presented By: Mustafa Kamal. PHTHALATES -Phthalates or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.Phthalates are a class of widely used."— Presentation transcript:
PHTHALATES -Phthalates or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.Phthalates are a class of widely used industrial compounds known technically as dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. used primarily to soften Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). -mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity).
Phthalates are also frequently used in soft plastic fishing lures, sex toys made of so-called "jelly rubber".sex toys household applications such as shower curtains, vinyl upholstery, adhesives, floor tiles, food containers and wrappers, and cleaning materials. History The development of cellulose nitrate in 1846 led to the patent of castor oil in 1856 for use as the first plasticizer. In 1870, camphor became the more favored plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. Phthalates were first introduced in the 1920s and quickly replaced the volatile and odorous camphor. In 1931, the commercial availability of polyvinyl chloride and the development of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate began the boom of the plasticizer PVC industry.cellulose nitrate castor oilcamphorPVC Uses
Personal-care items containing phthalates include -perfume, - eye shadow, -moisturizer, -nail polish, - liquid soap, -and hair spray. They are also found in modern electronics and medical applications such as -catheters and blood transfusion devices. enteric coatingsenteric coatings of pharmaceutical pills nutritional supplements to viscosity control agents,viscosity gelling agents, film formers, stabilizersstabilizers, dispersantsdispersants, binders, emulsifying agentsemulsifying agents, and suspending agents.
Globally, approximately six million tonnes of plasticisers are consumed every year, of which European consumption accounts for approximately 1 million tonnes. They contribute 10-60% of plastic products by weight. Some Important Facts That new car smell, which becomes especially pungent after the car has been sitting in the sun for a few hours, is partly the pungent odor of phthalates volatilizing from a hot plastic dashboard. In the evening's cool they then condense out of the inside air of the car to form an oily coating on the inside of the windshield. Much of the current research on effects of phthalate exposure has been focused towards children and men’s health, however, women may be at higher risk for potential adverse health effects of phthalates due to increased cosmetic use. Diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate are especially ubiquitous in cosmetics and personal care products. cosmetics
EU overview: The EU banned the use of 6 phthalate esters in toys and children’s products that might be potentially placed in the mouth, at levels greater than 0.1% of the total object weight on January 16, 2007. The phthalates subject to this regulation are: Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, DOP) Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) The EU has also applied limitations to the use of these phthalates in general food contact applications (packaging and closures) and medical device applications. In addition, several phthalates have been listed as “Substances of Very High Concern” (SVHC) requiring reporting of their content in articles exported into the EU under the REACH regulations: Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, DOP) Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) Manufacturers contemplating export of phthalate containing compounds or articles to EU members should acquaint themselves with the specifics of these and other EU regulatory requirements.
United States overview: In the United States, on August 14, 2008 the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) incorporated regulation of phthalate esters as components of children’s toys and child care articles for children under the age of 12 that could be “placed in the mouth”. For CPSIA purposes, the following phthalates were permanently banned at levels greater than 0.1%: Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, DOP) Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) The CPSIA also imposed an interim ban on the use of the following phthalates at levels greater than 0.1% pending the results of further CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) review: Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) The CPSIA also contains a number of other provisions regulating other chemical content of toys, prohibition of the sale of non-compliant materials after February 10, 2009, analysis requirements, and other standards. Anyone engaged in production or sale of toys or child care products should thoroughly acquaint themselves with all the provisions of this legislation.
Australia In January 2010, the Australian Consumer Affairs Minister Craig Emerson announced a ban on items containing more than one per cent Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) because of international research linking it to reproductive difficulties. Instrumentation for Phthalate Testing Samples for phthalate testing are initially extracted and then analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer operated in a selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS/SIM).
CPSIA requires the following items to contain no DINP, DIDP and DnOP (the 3 prohibited phthalates) and less than 0.1% of phthalates DEHP, DBP or BBP (the 3 restricted phthalates): toys for children of any age must not have any of the 3 prohibited phthalates toys that can be placed in a child’s mouth must not have any of the 3 prohibited phthalates or violative concentrations of the 3 restricted phthalates feeding and child care items for children under 3 (we await a formal definition of which items fall in this category) In February 2009, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a new regulation under Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) that severely limits the concentrations of phthalates found in certain baby products including children’s toys and other childcare products. This includes products used to assist in a child’s sleeping, sucking, feeding or teething and some apparel including sleepwear and bibs. There are six phthalates regulated by the CPSIA at levels typically not to exceed 0.1% in these childcare products. The European Union, in European directive 2005/84/EEC has also banned the use of certain phthalates in many consumer and child care products.
Phthalates are easily released into the environment because there is no covalent bond between the phthalates and plastics in which they are mixed. As plastics age and break down, the release of phthalates accelerates. People are commonly exposed to phthalates, and most Americans tested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have metabolites of multiple phthalates in their urine. Because phthalate plasticizers are not chemically bound to PVC, they can easily leach and evaporate into food or the atmosphere. Phthalate exposure can be through direct use or by indirect means through leaching and general environmental contamination. Diet is believed to be the main source of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population. Fatty foods such as milk, butter, and meats are a major source.covalent bondplasticsCenters for Disease Control and PreventionmetabolitesDiet In studies of rodents exposed to certain phthalates, high doses have been shown to change hormone levels and cause birth defects. Health Concern
High level exposure for cancer endpoints, and occupational exposure leading to adult infertility. The phthalates dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) produced dramatic changes in male sexual characteristics when exposure took place in utero, at levels far beneath those of previous toxicological concern. These changes included increases in the rates of hypospadias and other indications of demasculinization.hypospadias DEHP's impact on developing Sertoli cells, cells in the male reproductive tract that are central to sperm formation. Damaged Sertoli cells during development lead to sperm maladies in adulthood, including low sperm count. DEHP does not cause Sertoli damage directly; damage instead is caused by a metabolite of DEHP, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP).low sperm count
How might I be exposed to phthalates? You can be exposed to low levels of phthalates through air, water, or food. You can be exposed to phthalates if you use cosmetics, personal care products, cleaning products, or other plastic and vinyl products that contain them. Exposure to low levels of phthalates may come from eating food packaged in plastic that contains phthalates, or breathing dust in rooms with vinyl miniblinds, wallpaper, or recently installed flooring that contain phthalates. You could be exposed by drinking water that contains phthalates, though it is not known how common that is. Children can be exposed to phthalates by chewing on soft vinyl toys or other products made with them. Children can be exposed by breathing household dust that contains phthalates, or using IV tubing or other medical devices made with phthalates. People at the highest risk of exposure to phthalates are dialysis patients, hemophiliacs, or people who received blood transfusions from sources that use tubing or containers made with phthalates. The Food and Drug Administration has recommended steps to minimize exposure of patients to medical devices that contain phthalates, and alternative devices for certain procedures. Others at high risk are painters, printers, and workers exposed to phthalates during the manufacture, formulation, and processing of plastics.
Ink manufacturers should have available quantitative test reports for phthalate content, as well as an Eco- Passport Certificate, including the related test reports. The Eco-Passport Certificate relates to tests carried out to the Oeko-Tex 100 Standard that is used in the textile industry, including screen-printing inks, to evaluate their suitability for the production of textiles optimized for the ecology. If Oeko-Tex 100 Standard compliance is a requirement, it still remains the responsibility of the printer to ensure that the final printed garment or product is in compliance of the Oeko-Tex 100 Standard. What Ink Manufacturers Can Offer
GroupPhthalateScopeRequirementEffective Date 1 DEHP DBP BBP Permanent Ban Toys for children up to 12 or childcare articles up to 3 ≤ 0.1 % ≤ 0.1 % ≤ 0.1 % 10 Feb, 2009 2DIDP DINP DNOP Interim Ban Toys for children up to 12 that can be placed in the mouth or childcare articles up to 3 ≤ 0.1 % ≤ 0.1 % ≤ 0.1 % New Requirement for Phthalates under CPSIA
Unfortunately, it's not particularly easy to avoid phthalates.
Alternatives Currently, there are few alternatives to phthalates in PVC. Biological alternatives There are numerous biological alternatives on the market. The problem is that they are typically expensive and not compatible as a primary plasticizer. A plasticizer based on vegetable oil has been developed which uses single reactor synthesis and is compatible as a primary plasticizer. It is a ready substitute for dioctyl pthalate.