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Dr. Midori Kitagawa University of Texas at Dallas Arts and Technology Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Midori Kitagawa University of Texas at Dallas Arts and Technology Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Midori Kitagawa University of Texas at Dallas Arts and Technology Program

2 Created by animators at the Walt Disney Studios in the early 1930’s Helped to transform animation from a novelty into an art form Still today Guide production and creative discussions Train young animators better and faster Applicable to 2D/3D computer animation as well as traditional hand-drawn animation

3 From Illusion of Life: Disney Animation by Ollie Johnson and Frank Thomas Squash and stretch Anticipation Staging Straight ahead action and pose to pose Follow through and overlapping action Slow-in and slow-out Arcs Secondary action Timing Exaggeration Solid drawing Appeal

4 Squash and stretch Follow through Timing Slow-in and slow-out Secondary action Arcs Anticipation Staging PhysicsAesthetics Presentation of action Production methods Straight ahead action and pose to pose Exaggeration Solid drawing Overlapping action Appeal

5 Physics Squash and stretch Follow through Timing Secondary action Slow in and slow out Arcs

6 While many real world objects, e.g. a rock, have little or no flexibility most organic objects, e.g. a human body, have some flexibility in their shapes When an object moves, its movement indicates the rigidity of the object

7 No matter how squashed or stretched out an object gets, its volume should remain constant

8 Termination of action Nothing stops at once When the main body of a character stops all other parts continue to catch up it, such as arms, long hair, clothing, floppy ears, and a long tail


10 Timing, i.e., the speed of an action, gives meaning to movement, both physical and emotional meaning Timing affects the perception of mass of an object

11 Timing gives meaning to movement A character looks first over the right shoulder and then over the left shoulder. Varying the number of inbetweens can imply: 0: hit by a strong force and its head almost snapped off 1: hit by something substantial,.e.g., frying pan 2: has a nervous twitch 3: dodging a flying object 4: giving a crisp order 6: sees something inviting 9: thinking about something 10: stretching a sore muscle

12 Timing affects the perception of mass of an object The slower the object moves the heavier it looks

13 Spacing of inbetweens at extremes Soften the action and make it more life-like Without slow-outWith slow-out

14 Smaller motions that complement the main action, e.g. hair flows as a character turns its head Increases the complexity and interest in a scene

15 All actions, with few exceptions (e.g., motion of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path Especially true of the human figure and the action of animals Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow

16 Aesthetics Exaggeration Appeal Overlapping action

17 A caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes, and actions Makes it more realistic and entertaining Not arbitrary distortion of shapes nor making an action more violent or unrealistic

18 “If a character is sad, make him sadder; if he is bright, make him shine; worried, make him fret; wild, make him frantic.” (Lasseter, 1987)

19 Ability to draw weight, volume, and balance Aesthetic sensibility for forms, textures, lights, and motions

20 Animated characters must appeal to the audience. They don't need to be lovely, cute and nice, but they must be interesting, somehow attractive. Villains as well as heroes and heroines should have appeals

21 A live performer has charisma; an animated character has appeal

22 Starting a second action before the first action has completely finished Keeps the interest of the viewer, since there is no dead time between actions

23 "When a character knows what he is going to do he doesn't have to stop before each individual action and think to do it. He has it planned in advance in his mind." Disney

24 Presentation of action Anticipation Staging

25 Preparation for an action, e.g., when a character is about to jump, he first crouches to gain momentum and the takes off Prepares the viewer for the action that will happen Longer anticipation is needed for faster actions

26 Clear presentation of an idea, where the idea can be an action, a personality, an expression, or a mood An idea should be unmistakably clear to the viewer

27 One idea at a time A personality should be staged so that it is recognizable

28 Production methods Straight ahead Pose to pose

29 Starts at the first drawing in a scene and then draws all of the subsequent frames until the end of the scene Creates very spontaneous and zany looking animation Used for wild, scrambling action

30 Planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene Action, size, volumes, and proportions are controlled than straight ahead The lead animator will turn keys over to his assistant

31 Another way to look at the principles

32 Essential for 3D computer animation


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