2It is made up of… Esophagus Liver Stomach Gall Bladder Pancreas Large IntestineSmall IntestineRectumAnus
3Stomach Functions“storage bin” – holds the meal in the upper portion, and releases it into the lower portion“food mixer” – the muscles in the stomach contract and mash the food up“sterilizing system” – the cells in the stomach produce an acid which kills germ in bad food“digestive tub” – produces digestive fluid to break down chemicals in food as fuel for body
4The Small IntestineFunction: finishes digestion process, absorbs nutrients, passes residue onto large intestineBasically breaks down the food small enough so the body can absorb and use itDivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileumChyme regulates secretionsChyme: semi-fluid mixture of hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and partially digested food.Chyme creates a chemical and mechanical irritation reflex, so the greater amount of chyme, the greater amount of secretion
5The Liver Produce substances that break down fats Converts glucose to glycogenProduce urea (main substance of urine)Makes amino acidsFilter harmful substances from the bloodStores vitamins and mineralsMaintains proper level of glucose in the bloodProduces cholesterol (80% of body’s total)Basically Produces Bile and Secretes it into Bile Ducts
6The Pancreas Digestive juices break down carbs, proteins and fats Secretes hormones that affect blood level of sugarProduces chemicals that neutralize stomach acidsAcinar cells (acini) – secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestineIslet cells – secrete hormones insulin and glucagon into blood stream to regulate blood glucose concentrationGlucogon – raises the level of glucose in the bloodInsulin – stimulates cells to use glucoseSomatostatin – regulate the secretion of glucagons and insulinPancreatic duct cells – secrete bicarbonate to regulate small intestine acidity
7Gall BladderStores the bile to have it in larger amounts when a meal is eatedBILE:Breaks down the fats in the foodAnti-oxidant which helps to remover toxins in the liver
8Large Intestine Colon – last absorption of any nutrients or water Produces supplemental vitamins**Also apart of the immune system **
9Rectum and AnusRectum - Receives stool from the colon and stores it until the person knows the stool has to be evacuated*** Nervous System sends messages to the brain when stool and gas enter the rectum ***Anus – consists of 2 anal sphincter muscles and pelvic floor musclesUpper anus detects rectal contents (solid, liquid, gas)** surrounded by muscles that control stool, ex: pelvic floor muscles create an angle between rectum and anus which stops stool when its not supposed to come outInternal sphincter is always tight, except when stool enters the rectum, ex: keeps us content while sleepingExternal sphincter is contracted until you reach a toilet, then it relaxes to release stool
10Specialized CellsSmall Intestine contains mucosa which are covered in tiny fingerlike projections called villi and microvilli which allow nutrients to be absorbedSpecialized cells allow absorbed materials to cross the mucosa into the blood where they are carried off in the blood stream to other parts of the body for storage and further chemical change
11There are many Gastrointestinal Disorders including: GiardiasisHeartburnHemorrhoidsHiatal HerniaPancreatitisProctitisSigmoidoscopyStomach FluUlcersVomitingAbdominal PainAnal Fissure/ BleedingBarium Enema/ SwallowColonoscopyConstipationDehydrationDiverticulitisGastritisGastroenteritis
13ConstipationCauses:Constipation is caused by a lack of fiber or daily fluid. Also, if one holds in bowel longer than normal constipation can occur. Not enough exercise can bring forth constipation. Depression and other illnesses can cause constipation as well.
14Constipation Symptoms: Constipation feels like the need to make a bowel movement, but it is not able to go through. Also, it can feel like bowels do not move through as frequently as possible.
15Constipation Effects: Constipation can cause pain or bleeding of the rectum.
16Constipation Treatments: Over the counter medication can treat constipation. Laxatives or enema can help soften stools, but too much of it or overuse can make symptoms worse. After meals time should be set aside to attempt to pass bowels. An increase in fiber and more exercise can also help.
18Coeliac Disease (Gluten Enteropathy) Causes:Coeliac Disease is caused by sensitivity to gluten that damages the lining of the small intestine. Diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disorders can lead to Coeliac Disease. This can also be passed down by genetics.
19Coeliac Disease (Gluten Enteropathy) Symptoms:Usually there are no symptoms, which is why the disease goes unnoticed. Some general symptoms include weight loss, tiredness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rashes.
20Coeliac Disease (Gluten Enteropathy) Effects:With an earlier the diagnosis, fewer effects occur. Effects can include organ disorders with the liver, spleen, and gall bladder, iron deficiency, vitamin deficiency, osteoporosis, lactose intolerance, Type 1 diabetes, greater chance of cancer, Rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
21Coeliac Disease (Gluten Enteropathy) Treatment:Treatment includes a gluten-free diet for life. Tests of the intestinal lining must be taken.
22Crohn’s Disease Description Chronic inflammation of the intestines Causes ulcers in either intestine or anywhere else in the digestive systemAffects approximately 500,000-2 million people in the US
23Crohn’s Disease Etiology Unknown Suspicions: infection by a specific bacteria type, such as mycobacteriumAbnormal immune reaction, where the body mistakes food, bacteria, and other substances as foreign, leading the immune system to attack and accumulate white blood cells in intestine (which causes inflammation)
24Crohn’s Disease Symptoms Abdominal pain (esp. in the lower right portion of the abdomen)Abdominal spasmsCrampsDiarrheaMalnutrition and loss of appetite (often leading to sudden weight loss)
25Crohn’s Disease Symptoms as the Disease Progresses Joint pain Fever FatigueAnal soresBloatingSkin lesions/soresAnal drainage
26TREATMENTS Crohn’s Disease Medications TNF inhibitors (TNF promotes inflammatory response, which causes problems with autoimmune disorders like Crohn’s)SurgeryProvides immediate relief but does not cureResectionRemoving a section of diseased tissue in the small or large intestine and reconnecting the healthy segments
27Crohn’s Disease Treatments Strictureplasty Nutrition helps prevent shortening of the bowel by repairing tissue rather than removing itNutritionDieticians help patients maintain a healthy weight and absorb vitamins and other nutrients
28Peptic UlcersOpen sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach, upper small intestine or esophagus.
29CausesThe most common cause is Helicobacter Pylori, a type of bacteria.Other causes:SmokingExcessive alcohol consumptionRegular use of pain relieversStress
30SymptomsMost Common: Burning anywhere from your nasal to your breastbone.Less Common, but more severe: Nausea Vomiting, Vomiting of Blood, unexplained weight loss, appetite changes.
31Types of Peptic Ulcers Gastric Ulcer: Stomach Duodenal Ulcer: Beginning of small intestineEsophageal Ulcer: Lower sectionof the esophagus; least common typeof peptic ulcer.
33Treatment The goals of treatment are: Kill the Bacteria Reduce level of acid within the digestive system in order to reduce painTreatment options:Antibiotics: Used to treat the H. Pylori BacteriaAcid Blockers: Reduce the amount of acid released into the digestive tract.Antacids: Neutralize stomach acid.Proton pump inhibitors: Block the acid “pumps”Cytoprotective Agents: Used to protect the Stomach linings and small intestines.