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BREAD-MAKING CHEMISTRY OF BREAD HISTORY CELIAC- DISEASE ITALIAN’S TRADICTION ITALIAN’S TRADICTION.

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Presentation on theme: "BREAD-MAKING CHEMISTRY OF BREAD HISTORY CELIAC- DISEASE ITALIAN’S TRADICTION ITALIAN’S TRADICTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 BREAD-MAKING CHEMISTRY OF BREAD HISTORY CELIAC- DISEASE ITALIAN’S TRADICTION ITALIAN’S TRADICTION

2 KNEADING: LEAVENING: TOOLING: COOKING: Leavened dough is cut into desidered shapes Ingredients are mixed by hand or mechanically. In this phase forms the gluten (gliadin+glutenin).Ingredients Dough is left to ferment at 30 degrees resulting in the production of carbon dioxide Forms are placed in ovens at temperatures between 200 and 270 degrees.

3 FLOURS: FLOURS WATER: COMMON SALT: COMMON SALT YEAST: Flour for bread-making is the most suitable wheat. Must have a temperature between 21 and 25 degrees not to hinder the activity of yeast. More over water must have no high mineral content (soft water). Makes the crust crisp and improves the quality of gluten. Yeasts are unicellular fungi that can derive energy from respiration or oxygen deficiency in the alcoholic fermentation takes place, during which are produced carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.

4 Salt war (1540) was an insurrection of Perugia’s territory against the Papal states at the time of Pope Paul III; at the end of the war, Perugia lost its indipendence and began to be part of Papal state. Prologue The territory of Perugia was formally part of Papal state since the early middle ages time, but during the XV sec, like it had just happened, the control on the city becames less because of asserting on the territory of some lordships, last of which was the Baglioni’s. In 1531 on all the palpal territory was set out a tax on salt creating a popolar displeasure. In 1539 the pope Paul III showed intention to request the increase of the price of salt, but the next suggestion was rejected from the popular council summoned of Priori, and the pope had to present the bull of excommunication of Perugia’s population. In addition to this, some years then the pope, decided to counter the popular insubordination of Perugia, during the concistory (college) showed the willingness to resort to an armed In the middle of 1540 in Perugia’s territory were inviated the papal troops. The papal army began to destroy the territory near to Perugia. Having less then 2000 soldiers, the Perugia’s peolpe could count on the support of Cosimo de’ Medici, in contrast with Paul III, who engaged Ridolfo Baglioni, ex lord of Perugia. Papal troops didin’t have any problems to contrast the weak defence of the city and on the 3rd of june was dealed the capitulation of Perugia, with next emigration near to other cities of many families prefering the awe to the local lordships than the dominion of Papal state. Salt war (1540) was an insurrection of Perugia’s territory against the Papal states at the time of Pope Paul III; at the end of the war, Perugia lost its indipendence and began to be part of Papal state. Prologue The territory of Perugia was formally part of Papal state since the early middle ages time, but during the XV sec, like it had just happened, the control on the city becames less because of asserting on the territory of some lordships, last of which was the Baglioni’s. In 1531 on all the palpal territory was set out a tax on salt creating a popolar displeasure. In 1539 the pope Paul III showed intention to request the increase of the price of salt, but the next suggestion was rejected from the popular council summoned of Priori, and the pope had to present the bull of excommunication of Perugia’s population. In addition to this, some years then the pope, decided to counter the popular insubordination of Perugia, during the concistory (college) showed the willingness to resort to an armed In the middle of 1540 in Perugia’s territory were inviated the papal troops. The papal army began to destroy the territory near to Perugia. Having less then 2000 soldiers, the Perugia’s peolpe could count on the support of Cosimo de’ Medici, in contrast with Paul III, who engaged Ridolfo Baglioni, ex lord of Perugia. Papal troops didin’t have any problems to contrast the weak defence of the city and on the 3rd of june was dealed the capitulation of Perugia, with next emigration near to other cities of many families prefering the awe to the local lordships than the dominion of Papal state.

5 Consequences The city lost for the second time in its history its own civic fredom and its secolar indipendece passing newly to the dipendencies of church’s state which forced the citizens to build the Rocca Paolina. Part of the city walls were destroied. Perugian however didn’t give themselves loser, they reacted after the war with boycotted the charge which had established their regional submission to the pope, so they stopped adding salt to the bread that became tasteless. The city and other parts of Umbria still preserve the tradition of eating tasteless bread, which should be very proud tradition.

6 PANZANELLA BRUSCHETTA PANCOTTO

7 Panzanella is a typical summer recipe, it takes a bit stale bread and vegetables in season for fresh and tasty first course. PROCESS Put the slices of stale bread in a bowl with water and allow to soften for 20 minutes, then squeeze well and crumble into a large bowl. Take thinly red sliced onion, celery and cucumber and tomatoes in not too large pieces. Add the vegetables to bread and mix well with your hands to make spice. Add oil, salt and basil and mix again. Leave the panzanella in the fridge for a few minutes… And enjoy your meal! Panzanella is a typical summer recipe, it takes a bit stale bread and vegetables in season for fresh and tasty first course. PROCESS Put the slices of stale bread in a bowl with water and allow to soften for 20 minutes, then squeeze well and crumble into a large bowl. Take thinly red sliced onion, celery and cucumber and tomatoes in not too large pieces. Add the vegetables to bread and mix well with your hands to make spice. Add oil, salt and basil and mix again. Leave the panzanella in the fridge for a few minutes… And enjoy your meal!

8 Bruschetta is a flat "farmer", usually served as an appetizer and is famous all over the world. PROCESS In the classical version it consists of a slice of bread toaste in the oven or on the plate. When the bread is warm and nicely crispy, rub a clove of garlic and season with extra virgin olive oil, salt and pepper. The bruschetta can be served with other ingredients, especially tomatoes. If you want to feel less the taste of garlic, don’t rub it on bread and leave it to marinate for at least half an hour along with tomatoes, then eliminate it.Cut the tomatoes into small pieces, add chopped parsley and basil and a little finely chopped pepper. Season with salt and olive oil. Serve on bread toasted in the oven and rubbed with garlic. Do not burn the bread. Cut the tomatoes into small pieces and then add red onion, olive oil and salt. Bruschetta is a flat "farmer", usually served as an appetizer and is famous all over the world. PROCESS In the classical version it consists of a slice of bread toaste in the oven or on the plate. When the bread is warm and nicely crispy, rub a clove of garlic and season with extra virgin olive oil, salt and pepper. The bruschetta can be served with other ingredients, especially tomatoes. If you want to feel less the taste of garlic, don’t rub it on bread and leave it to marinate for at least half an hour along with tomatoes, then eliminate it.Cut the tomatoes into small pieces, add chopped parsley and basil and a little finely chopped pepper. Season with salt and olive oil. Serve on bread toasted in the oven and rubbed with garlic. Do not burn the bread. Cut the tomatoes into small pieces and then add red onion, olive oil and salt.

9 PROCESS Pancotto is the essential ingredient of traditional unsalted bread (or "fool") stale (ie a few days). Other ingredients: extra virgin olive oil, a clove of garlic, tomato sauce, some basil leaves, salt, pepper, water or vegetable broth. In the hot version, you can add Parmesan cheese (or cheese) and eggs. Recipe: about 1 pound of bread and 2 glasses of water filled (or vegetable broth) per person. For better success bread should be broken up into pieces slightly larger than a walnut. Put oil the garlic in a large pot and saute a few minutes. Add 1 tablespoon of tomatoe sauce per person. Let’ go far a couple of minutes. Remove the garlic clove and add water in the ratio mentioned at the beginning. Add a few pinches of salt and heat without bringing everything to a boil. At this point put the pieces of bread and startd to stir so that water is well absorbed by bread. Remove from heat once the bread has absorbed almost all the water and continue stirring for a few moments. PROCESS Pancotto is the essential ingredient of traditional unsalted bread (or "fool") stale (ie a few days). Other ingredients: extra virgin olive oil, a clove of garlic, tomato sauce, some basil leaves, salt, pepper, water or vegetable broth. In the hot version, you can add Parmesan cheese (or cheese) and eggs. Recipe: about 1 pound of bread and 2 glasses of water filled (or vegetable broth) per person. For better success bread should be broken up into pieces slightly larger than a walnut. Put oil the garlic in a large pot and saute a few minutes. Add 1 tablespoon of tomatoe sauce per person. Let’ go far a couple of minutes. Remove the garlic clove and add water in the ratio mentioned at the beginning. Add a few pinches of salt and heat without bringing everything to a boil. At this point put the pieces of bread and startd to stir so that water is well absorbed by bread. Remove from heat once the bread has absorbed almost all the water and continue stirring for a few moments.

10 GLUTEN Gluten is a lipoprotein substance, which is often used as a substitute of meat because of its great protein content.The complex structure of gluten derives from two types of proteins: the gladina and glutenin which absorb water. The relationship between these two proteins leads to the formation of more or less tenacious gluten, which differentiates the various types of flour. During digestion, intestinal gluten peptide is neutralized. This gives the dough viscosity, elasticity and cohesion. Therefore, the quality and quantity of gluten in a specific type of flour is an important index to evaluate the quality and capability of bread-making. Determination of Crude Gluten in Flour Materials: Beaker, flour, KI, balance Procedure: Firstly 25gr of flour was placed in beaker, about 25ml water added, and mixed into dough with a spatula. Then the dough was kneaded gently under water for 10-15min, so that soluble matter and starch were washed away. KI was used to control presence of starch. Then dough into a ball was rolled the most gluten weighed and percentage expressed of flour. Also was noticed its color. Then it was dried at 100˚C to constant weigh and expressed repeat as a percentage of flour. Gluten is a lipoprotein substance, which is often used as a substitute of meat because of its great protein content.The complex structure of gluten derives from two types of proteins: the gladina and glutenin which absorb water. The relationship between these two proteins leads to the formation of more or less tenacious gluten, which differentiates the various types of flour. During digestion, intestinal gluten peptide is neutralized. This gives the dough viscosity, elasticity and cohesion. Therefore, the quality and quantity of gluten in a specific type of flour is an important index to evaluate the quality and capability of bread-making. Determination of Crude Gluten in Flour Materials: Beaker, flour, KI, balance Procedure: Firstly 25gr of flour was placed in beaker, about 25ml water added, and mixed into dough with a spatula. Then the dough was kneaded gently under water for 10-15min, so that soluble matter and starch were washed away. KI was used to control presence of starch. Then dough into a ball was rolled the most gluten weighed and percentage expressed of flour. Also was noticed its color. Then it was dried at 100˚C to constant weigh and expressed repeat as a percentage of flour.

11 It is appropriate to speak of gluten “intolerance” instead of allergy, because the reactions are not comparable to typically allergic manifestations. The occurence of this disease has been dramatically increasing during the last decades. Up until few years ago, the diagnosis of this disease was made with certainty only by taking a piece of small intestin, by a probe or a gastroscopy tube. Them some years ago, specific exames where discovered.They are carried out on blood samples in order to determine the presence of immunoglobulins produced by the body to "fight" the enemy gluten. Immunoglobulins are proteins that function of antibodies and they are mainly produced by lymphocyte B in the blood. Celiac women who are not diagnosed and properly treated during paedriatic age suffer the most. They are likely to be affected by anemia, because of the lack of iron in their organism, which causes them not to produce enough red corpuscles. As a result it is quite probable that, when they reach the old age, they will suffer osteoporosis, joint pain, etc.. Children if not psychologically supported by their parents at early parties where you can eat "normal" food with gluten, could experience the feeling of exclusion. this is the symbol used for products that do not contain gluten

12 Yeast fermentationStarch Digestion Cooking Chemical Determina tion Chemical Determina tion

13 Bread is produced by cooking a raised mixture of water, flour and yeast, with or without salt. Bread making includes the following steps: 1.The mixture: consists in mixing flour, water, yeast to get a homogeneous mixture. During this phase the gladine and gluteine proteins form the glutine that contributes to the tenacity and elasticity of the mixture. The content of glutine is the tendency of the dough ton harden which is called “strength” of the flour. 2.Raising: during this stage the mixture is left to raise in a room at about 25-30°C. From the mixture stage complex transformations in the flour starch take place, flour is transformed by the diastasi in maltose and then in glucose of the flour, because of the maltose. The enzymathical transformations which take place during rising are: 2n C 6 H 10 O 6 + n H 2 O = n C 12 H 22 O 11 Starch + water Amylase maltose C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O = 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 Maltose + water Maltase glucose

14 Salivary amylase Pancreatic amylase Maltose D-Glucose Absorbtion Glycogen D-Glucose

15 Starch Analisys Flour Acidity

16 Amylose and amylopectin are both polymers containing 1000's of glucoses. Amylose molecules consist of single mostly-unbranched chains of glucose molecules. All of the monomer units are a-D-glucose, and all the alpha acetal links connect C-1 of one glucose to C-4 of the next glucose. As a result of the bond angles in the a-acetal linkage the chain of amylose is coiled in the shape of a left- handed helix. Amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched. The glucose momomers within the branches are linked by -1,4 glycosidic bonds, but where the branch joins the main branch α-1,6 link forms. Approximately every 12th-20th D-glucose unit of one amylose chain is "cross-linked" to another amylose chain.

17 1)Titrant NaOH in the burette 2) Solution: 2g. flour + 100ml ethyl alcohol 50% 3) After 3 hours: filtration ofthe flour solution 4) After the solution has been filtered, in the analyte add phenolphthalein indicator 5) Add to the analyte (flour) the titrant (NaOH N/50) the endpoint of a reaction. The analyte mixture changes color, phenolphthalein becomes pink 1)Titrant NaOH in the burette 2) Solution: 2g. flour + 100ml ethyl alcohol 50% 3) After 3 hours: filtration ofthe flour solution 4) After the solution has been filtered, in the analyte add phenolphthalein indicator 5) Add to the analyte (flour) the titrant (NaOH N/50) the endpoint of a reaction. The analyte mixture changes color, phenolphthalein becomes pink Determination of the flours acidity

18 The bread is baked in the oven at a temperature of °C for different time:for the sandwich in 15 minutes, for the bread in 1 hour. Phenomena occurring at the time of cooking °CThe yeasts fermentation develop gas and the bread growing volume. 50 °CThe yeasts dead. 70°CGluten starts to coagulate. Alcohol and other aromatic substances evaporate 100°C The crust formed by evaporation of water 120 °CThe crust solidifies °CThe sugars are caramelized and has a brown color


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