Presentation on theme: "Industrial Uses of Enzymes IB Topic 3.6. Industries use enzymes Leather tanning Hides are soften & hair is removed using proteases Brewing Enzymes."— Presentation transcript:
Industries use enzymes Leather tanning Hides are soften & hair is removed using proteases Brewing Enzymes in barley grains are used to convert starch in grain to sugars These sugars are converted to ethanol by the fermentation of yeast Cheese manufacturing Proteins in milk are coagulated (made insoluble) using the enzyme rennet/rennin Biotechnology
Advantages of enzymes as industrial catalysts Enzymes are produced by living cells, but may be separated from cells and continue to function outside the cell Advantages: Specific Efficient Requires a tiny quantity to catalyse the production of a huge quantity of product
Sources of industrial enzymes Plants and animal sources Pineapple juice enzymes are used to treat thromboses Microorganisms (bacteria & fungi) Cultured economically and at high growth rates Some can occur naturally at extreme environmental conditions Contain enzymes that are able to function under extreme temperatures and pH Example: enzymes from hot springs bacteria are used in biological washing powders
Lactose-free milk: an example of industrial use of enzymes People unable to produce lactase in their pancreatic juice or surface of the villi of the small intestine fail to digest milk sugar. Therefore, lactose passes to the large intestine (without being hydrolyzed) Bacteria in the large intestine feed on the lactose Produces fatty acids and methane Causes flatulence and diarrhea This is called lactose intolerance
More on lactase The enzyme lactase is produced in the gut of all human babies while they are dependent on milk However, it is only found in adults from Northern Europe (and their descendents) and a few African tribes People from the Orient, Arabia, India, most African people and those from the Mediterranean typically produce little or no lactase as adults
So, there’s lactose-free milk Enzyme technology; using lactase obtained from bacteria Lactose free milk is produced by passing milk through a column containing immobilized lactase The enzyme is obtained from bacteria, purified, and enclosed in capsules
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