Presentation on theme: "Ch. 21 The Civil War. Bull Run Bull Run (Manassas Junction), 30 miles south of Washington Assumed a quick strike would knock out South McDowell."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 21 The Civil War
Bull Run Bull Run (Manassas Junction), 30 miles south of Washington Assumed a quick strike would knock out South McDowell v Joe Johnston July 21/1861 Picnickers Use of Railroad “Stonewall” Jackson The Great Skedaddle Consequences
Mcclellan And The Peninsula Campaign George McClellan—”Young Napoleon” Strengths and Weaknesses McClellan’s slow creep down the Chesapeake Jackson in the Shenandoah Seven Day’s Battle Robert E. Lee McClellan’s Retreat
Anaconda Plan Union plan has six components: Suffocate the south by blockading the coast Liberate the slaves and thus undermine southern economy Cut the South in half by seizing control of the Mississippi Chop the confederacy into pieces by sending troops through the Carolinas and Georgia Decapitate it by seizing Richmond Wage war of attrition and attack the southern main forces with Bigger Union forces. South can’t afford to lose troops at 1-1 ratio.
ART OF WAR By 1860 had been huge technological leaps in weaponry. Rifled barrels Minie ball Tactics had to change, but most of the officers didn’t adjust early. entrenched defensive fortifications were supreme. Change in how Calvary used. Artillery used defensively to mow down attackers during a charge and to soften up defenders before attacking.
Second Bull Run—8/29/62 Pope v. Lee and Jackson Day 1, Pope attempts a frontal assault and is repulsed. Day 2, Longstreet has his troops laid out in an open V. Pope attacks up the middle and is mauled. 16000, Fed. Cas. compared to 9000 Confed. casualties. Pope is relieved of command and sent to Minn. to fight the Indians. McClelland placed back into command.
Antietam 9/17/1862 Lee’s thrust into Maryland Purpose The cigar problem McClelland fails to act aggressively. Draw in fact, win technically, but tactical defeat for Union. 9/17/62 Bloodiest single day of the war. Confed. 14,000 cas.; Union 12,500 Consequences Prevents Southern recognition McClelland relieved of command Allows for Emancipation Proclamation 9/23/1862
Emancipation Proclamation What it said Thousands of slaves flocked to the invading Union armies. Lincoln’s goal Eliminated any real possibility of a negotiated peace. Abolitionists reaction. Rise of the Copperheads. Europe reaction Prevents negotiated peace.
Fredericksburg Gen. Burnside, Confed. have fortified positions at top of ridge. Burnside orders repeated frontal charges. Union troops are slaughtered. More than 10,000 casualties. 12,700 Union Cas. to 5,300 Confed. Casualties. Biggest disparity of casualties of any Major Civil War battle. Lincoln replaces Burnside with Hooker. Winter of is low point for the Union.
Chancellorsville May “Fighting” Joe Hooker takes over from Burnside and is beaten at Chancelorsville. Union Casualties. 13,000 Confed. Jackson’s night march The fall of Jackson
Gettysburg Lee’s Plan Mead Terrain Culp’s Hill, Little Round Top, Big Round Top Day 1 Day 2 confederate plan Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain and 20 th Maine Pickett’s Charge Lee forced to retreat back across the Potomac. 28,000 Confed. Casualties; 23,000 Union Cas.
War in the West Western Strategy Grant Shiloh Vicksburg Battle of Chickamauga
Sherman’s March on Georgia Grant goes to the East and Sherman takes over in West Capture of Atlanta Slash and Burn Campaign Total War Captures Savannah Christmas Destruction of the city is vicious
Politics of War Election of 1864 Split of Democrats Union Party Andrew Johnson Democrats—George McClelland Soldier Vote Timely victories in Georgia Lincoln Wins 55-45
Grant Outlasts Lee Grant takes over in the east after Grant advantage and strategy 5/64 Grant repeatedly tries to jump a march on Lee and get around his right. Lee forced to continually retreat to meet these threats. (5/64) Battle of the Wilderness – U=18,000Cas.; Confed Cas. Longstreet severely wounded by friendly fire. (5/12) Spotslvania--Union suffers 12,000 Cas.; Confed. 8,000
Cold Harbor Cold Harbor—6/64. Union attacks fortified Confederate position. 7,000 Union Cas. in about 7 min. In one month, Grant looses 50,000 (Wilderness to Cold Harbor; ½ as many as lost by that army in the prior 3 years) Grant drives Lee back to Petersburg. Lee builds trenches and fortifications. Grant has to lay in siege. Grant is in miles of Richmond, but can’t get at Lee. Seige lasts for 9 months.
The Martyrdom Of Lincoln Five days after Lee’s surrender, Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington. Lincoln dies at the height of the Union Cause Ultimately, Lincoln’s death was bad for the south. Lincoln’s Legacy.