Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System Tuesday, January 12 th, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
The Digestive System Tuesday, January 12 th, 2010
What makes up our Body Systems? Specialized cells come together to form tissues Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue Connective TissueEpithelial Tissue
What makes up our Body Systems? Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Ex. stomach, heart, skin Ex. Respiratory, Circulatory, Immune, Nervous Systems
The Digestive System What role does the Digestive System play in our bodies? - Converts the food we eat into energy our bodies can use - Involves the breakdown of food, absorption of nutrients into our bloodstream, and elimination of unused materials
Nutrients Any substance consumed by an animal that is needed for survival, growth, development, tissue repair, or reproduction Used to make ATP, act as building blocks, or as cofactors (chemical compounds attached to proteins) 5
Nutrients Regardless of what an animal eats, an adequate diet must satisfy three nutritional needs – Fuel for all cellular work – The organic raw materials for biosynthesis – Essential nutrients, substances such as vitamins that the animal cannot make for itself
Think About It What are the categories of organic nutrients we require and why do we require each? 7
Animals require… 5 categories of organic nutrients: – Carbohydrates (quick energy & cell receptors) – Proteins (enzymes, cell structure, membrane support, muscles, skin, hair, nails) – Lipids (stored energy, cell membrane, protectant) – Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) – Vitamins (health & strength, act as coenzymes) Inorganic nutrients: – Minerals ex. Ca 2+, K +, Fe 3+ (health & strength, act as cofactors)
Note: Water is not a nutrient, but is necessary for: – maintaining cell functions – transporting nutrients & wastes – chemical reactions (breakdown of CHO, fats, proteins) – cooling body through sweat – lubrication (joints, mouth) Body requires 3 – 5 litres of water each day
IIeum of small intestine Duodenum of small intestine Appendix Cecum Ascending portion of large intestine Anus Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Liver Gall- bladder Tongue Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Pyloric sphincter Cardiac orifice Mouth Esophagus Salivary glands Stomach Liver Pancreas Gall- bladder Large intestines Small intestines Rectum Anus Parotid gland Sublingual gland Submandibular gland Salivary glands A schematic diagram of the human digestive system Pancreas
Sooo… How do the nutrients get into our blood to be distributed throughout the body? 15
Food is mechanically and chemically broken down into these molecules during digestion, after which they can be taken up by body cells through the separate process of absorption. 16
Think About It What does physical digestion mean? What does chemical digestion mean? 17
Principles of digestion and absorption Digestion requires enzymes capable of hydrolyzing bonds Products of digestion must be absorbed across plasma membranes Minerals, vitamins and monomers do not require digestion 18
Mechanical Breakdown in the Mouth Chewing involves teeth & the skeletal muscles of jaws, lip, cheeks and tongue and is controlled by cranial nerves.
What are the functions of chewing? The functions of chewing are to 1)reduce the size of food in order to be swallowed & to increase the surface area for enzymes to act 2) move the food around mouth to stimulate taste and touch receptors and promote secretions of saliva
Chemical Breakdown in the Mouth Why is the production of saliva important for health?
Saliva You produce 1-2L of saliva per day secreted at rate of 4 ml/minute Saliva contains water, mucus, salivary amylase, and bicarbonate ions HCO 3 - Salivary amylase
The functions of saliva are to: 1) moisten/soften and lubricate the food 2) neutralize acid produced by bacteria using HCO 3 - ions in saliva (helps prevent tooth decay) 3) convert starch to maltose with salivary amylase enzyme (*enzymes are specific*) The Role of Saliva
How is the release of saliva controlled? The Role of Saliva
When food is sensed (smell, touch, thought): Messages are sent to the salivary center in the medulla and nerve impulses are sent back to the salivary glands causing the release of saliva
The process of swallowing and peristalsis Once chewed, food is called a bolus Swallowing occurs when bolus exits mouth into esophagus (through pharynx) Swallowing begins as a voluntary action Action continues by involuntary peristalsis of esophagus ** NO absorption has occurred up to this point ** Carbohydrate digestion BEGAN in mouth
Pharynx The oral & nasal cavities connect to both trachea & esophagus via the pharynx How is food prevented from going down your air passages? Why is it impossible to breathe and swallow at the same time?
Swallowing 1.SOFT PALATE MOVES BACK to cover openings to nose (nasopharyngeal openings) 2.TRACHEA (WINDPIPE) MOVES UP under a flap of tissue called the epiglottis, blocking its opening 3.The GLOTTIS (opening to the LARYNX / “voicebox”) is closed when the trachea moves up feel you Adam’s Apple (part of larynx) when you swallow 4.Food then has one route to go down the ESOPHAGUS.
Why is it not a good idea to talk & eat at the same time? Epiglottis does not fully cover trachea & food goes down the “wrong way” can be coughed back up Soft palate doesn’t fully cover opening to nasal cavity and food gets into nasal cavity
Esophagus Muscular tube ~25cm long extending from pharynx to stomach Made of several types of tissue: Inner surface lined with mucus membranes. This layer is attached by connective tissue to a layer of smooth muscle containing both circular and longitudinal muscle.
Esophagus Food moves down esophagus through PERISTALSIS (rhythmical muscle contractions) takes about 9sec for food to move from pharnyx to stomach Pressure differences caused by waves of muscle contractions allow contents to move in one direction towards stomach Normal pressure usually prevents stomach contents from entering esophagus, but when does creates heartburn (stomach acid irritation)
Can we swallow upside down? Yes – because the muscles around the esophagus are strong enough to push food up to your stomach (However, it is not recommended you try this!)