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EXAMPLES OF MEDIA ANALYSIS A.AN ANARCHISTS’ MARCH Based on framing and hegemony concepts, subtle cues serve to delegitimize social protest movements. Based.

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Presentation on theme: "EXAMPLES OF MEDIA ANALYSIS A.AN ANARCHISTS’ MARCH Based on framing and hegemony concepts, subtle cues serve to delegitimize social protest movements. Based."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXAMPLES OF MEDIA ANALYSIS A.AN ANARCHISTS’ MARCH Based on framing and hegemony concepts, subtle cues serve to delegitimize social protest movements. Based on framing and hegemony concepts, subtle cues serve to delegitimize social protest movements. What choice of language is notable in the way the reporters describe the protesters? What choice of language is notable in the way the reporters describe the protesters? How are the protesters framed? Who are they seen in opposition to? How are the protesters framed? Who are they seen in opposition to?

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3 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis What visual devices in the coverage are important in framing the protesters? What visual devices in the coverage are important in framing the protesters? What aspects of the marching activity did the coverage revolve around? What aspects of the marching activity did the coverage revolve around? What kinds of sources were relied on? What other sources could have been called upon? What kinds of sources were relied on? What other sources could have been called upon? What is the ideological effect of the coverage as a whole? What is the ideological effect of the coverage as a whole?

4 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis LOCAL PRINT MEDIA Local mainstream Print media characterization of a street demonstration of ‘anarchists’: Local mainstream Print media characterization of a street demonstration of ‘anarchists’: Headline frames event: Headline frames event: "ANARCHISTS ORGANIZE TO WREAK HAVOC DOWNTOWN" "ANARCHISTS ORGANIZE TO WREAK HAVOC DOWNTOWN" News focuses on appearance of marchers: unruly hair, dress, etc. News focuses on appearance of marchers: unruly hair, dress, etc.

5 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis Actions examined based on elements of criminality: Actions examined based on elements of criminality: One-dollar bills burned, symbolic meaning not discussed, but police quoted saying "burning less than 2 dollars at once is not a crime." One-dollar bills burned, symbolic meaning not discussed, but police quoted saying "burning less than 2 dollars at once is not a crime." Incomplete photo showed protester burning American flag--did not show them also burning Soviet and McDonalds flag, focusing on the "anti-Americanness" Incomplete photo showed protester burning American flag--did not show them also burning Soviet and McDonalds flag, focusing on the "anti-Americanness" Great attention given to thoughts of bystanders, esp. those who disagree with the march Great attention given to thoughts of bystanders, esp. those who disagree with the march

6 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis Considerable attention to official points of view: e.g. the Deputy chief of police Considerable attention to official points of view: e.g. the Deputy chief of police Meaning of ‘anarchy’ not addressed: stereotype of society in disorder, chaos, ruled by will of the strong. Meaning of ‘anarchy’ not addressed: stereotype of society in disorder, chaos, ruled by will of the strong. Anarchy actually contrasted with hierarchy of people in power Anarchy actually contrasted with hierarchy of people in power

7 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis COVERAGE BY ANARCHISTS' OWN MEDIA Anarchist media coverage by The Guardian newspaper: “OVERTHROW” Anarchist media coverage by The Guardian newspaper: “OVERTHROW” Emphasizes planning behind march Emphasizes planning behind march Gives clear statements of rationale behind each stop on march e.g.: Pillsbury was picketed because of "ownership of Burger King and other fast food enterprises which contribute to the destruction of the world's largest remaining rain forests in Central and South America." Gives clear statements of rationale behind each stop on march e.g.: Pillsbury was picketed because of "ownership of Burger King and other fast food enterprises which contribute to the destruction of the world's largest remaining rain forests in Central and South America."

8 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis Characterizes events as peaceful and cooperative Characterizes events as peaceful and cooperative Portrays police as instigators rather than respondents of violence Portrays police as instigators rather than respondents of violence Criticizes local media for concentrating on "punks" rather than older demonstrators Criticizes local media for concentrating on "punks" rather than older demonstrators Estimates crowd at 200 in first march. ( The Star & Tribune: quoted bystanders as estimating crowd at 100) Estimates crowd at 200 in first march. ( The Star & Tribune: quoted bystanders as estimating crowd at 100)

9 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis TELEVISION COVERAGE Presented in law and order, social control frame Presented in law and order, social control frame “These protesters call themselves anarchists. They claim they're opposed to any and all forms of government. (Delegitimizing) “These protesters call themselves anarchists. They claim they're opposed to any and all forms of government. (Delegitimizing)

10 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis Blame violence on protesters (none of the anarchists given air-time to speak) Blame violence on protesters (none of the anarchists given air-time to speak) Pictures shot from behind the police, thus adopting that visual viewpoint (Framing) Pictures shot from behind the police, thus adopting that visual viewpoint (Framing) Stories framed as anarchists vs. police, rather than vs. president of local bank, or CEO of Pillsbury, e.g. (speaking to these may have legitimized the protest) Stories framed as anarchists vs. police, rather than vs. president of local bank, or CEO of Pillsbury, e.g. (speaking to these may have legitimized the protest) Variations in coverage Variations in coverage Clear distinction between mainstream (pro- government) and alternative (opposition) media Clear distinction between mainstream (pro- government) and alternative (opposition) media

11 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis COVERAGE DEMONSTRATES IDEOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF THE MEDIA Managing deviance, reaffirming social order Managing deviance, reaffirming social order We live in a media-dependent society We live in a media-dependent society Essential to be able to think clearly about: Essential to be able to think clearly about: the important values in our culture, the important values in our culture, how they are reproduced and transmitted by the mass media, how they are reproduced and transmitted by the mass media,

12 An Anarchists’ March - Analysis the institutions that affect that process, the institutions that affect that process, the people, groups and interests that benefit and those who are harmed. the people, groups and interests that benefit and those who are harmed.

13 The Persian War - Analysis B.IDEOLOGY AND THE PERSIAN GULF WAR LINGUISTIC DIRECTION IN GULF REPORTING Myths, stories, and metaphor give meaning to events, affect the way we come to know things, direct our thinking e.g. “Mother of all battles” Myths, stories, and metaphor give meaning to events, affect the way we come to know things, direct our thinking e.g. “Mother of all battles” One of the important new theoretical areas in media studies is the role of language. One of the important new theoretical areas in media studies is the role of language. Metaphors, in particular, are powerful in the way they structure our thinking about issues. Metaphors, in particular, are powerful in the way they structure our thinking about issues. E.g.: sports metaphors abound in discussing war, but improperly so: E.g.: sports metaphors abound in discussing war, but improperly so: The objective in sports is simply to win. In war, we must question what it is that we are winning. The objective in sports is simply to win. In war, we must question what it is that we are winning.

14 The Persian War - Analysis WAR DEPICTED AS ‘NATURAL EVENT’ WAR DEPICTED AS ‘NATURAL EVENT’ Desert Storm Desert Storm War Erupts War Erupts War breaks out War breaks out

15 Bombs "rain," Bombs "rain," Scuds "shower" Scuds "shower" (Compare with “The vase broke” – no agent) (Compare with “The vase broke” – no agent)

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17 The Persian War - Analysis WAR AS ‘CONTEST’ WAR AS ‘CONTEST’ Turkey shoot Turkey shoot Showdown in the Gulf Showdown in the Gulf

18 Knock out…

19 Sink ‘em all…

20 Mow ‘em…

21 The Persian War - Analysis DEHUMANIZATION OF ENEMY Saddam's war machine Saddam's war machine Mosquito (Iraq) biting elephant (the USA) Mosquito (Iraq) biting elephant (the USA) The enemy is: crafty, peculiar, surprising, unpredictable, mysterious, horrifying, unreliable, weak, haphazard, desperate, unspeakable, bizarre, demonic, devilish, satanic, criminal, ruthless, cruel, complex, random The enemy is: crafty, peculiar, surprising, unpredictable, mysterious, horrifying, unreliable, weak, haphazard, desperate, unspeakable, bizarre, demonic, devilish, satanic, criminal, ruthless, cruel, complex, random

22 The Persian War - Analysis We are: meticulous, successful, precise, accurate, careful, scrupulous, tough, cool calm, swift, decisive, effective, confident, cautious, eager, enthusiastic We are: meticulous, successful, precise, accurate, careful, scrupulous, tough, cool calm, swift, decisive, effective, confident, cautious, eager, enthusiastic (Strategy of negative Other- representation and positive Self- representation) (Strategy of negative Other- representation and positive Self- representation)

23 The Persian War - Analysis MAKE KILLING ABSTRACT Suppressing assets Suppressing assets Collateral damage Collateral damage Neutralizing targets Neutralizing targets Degrade/Downgrade initiatives Degrade/Downgrade initiatives Acquire assets Acquire assets Soften up targets Soften up targets

24 The Persian War - Analysis HIDING THE ACTOR (OR AGENT) "Its war" "Its war" “Non-combatants died” “Non-combatants died” (Again, ‘The vase broke’…) (Again, ‘The vase broke’…)

25 The Persian War - Analysis DEMONIZATION PROCESS Gaddafi vs. Hussein: The most dangerous man in the world in Newsweek features on both men Gaddafi vs. Hussein: The most dangerous man in the world in Newsweek features on both men Visual changes in Hussein picture in New Republic (to make him look like a demon) Visual changes in Hussein picture in New Republic (to make him look like a demon)

26 The Persian War - Analysis HOW WAS OPINION MOBILIZED IN THE GULF WAR? Early support was mixed Early support was mixed In November, NYT ran front page story on public uncertainty about Gulf policy. Sec. of State Baker, claimed it was about "jobs,"--"to bring it down to the level of the average citizen" In November, NYT ran front page story on public uncertainty about Gulf policy. Sec. of State Baker, claimed it was about "jobs,"--"to bring it down to the level of the average citizen" Support for troops is converted to support for policy: “We support our boys in the Gulf. They are fighting for the nation.” Support for troops is converted to support for policy: “We support our boys in the Gulf. They are fighting for the nation.”

27 The Persian War - Analysis Think about ideological influences of media: Isn't it remarkable that public opinion materialised so dramatically over that short period of time? Think about ideological influences of media: Isn't it remarkable that public opinion materialised so dramatically over that short period of time? Once troops are committed, a powerful set of routines and messages are engaged which establish their own logic, making it difficult to envision alternative policies. Once troops are committed, a powerful set of routines and messages are engaged which establish their own logic, making it difficult to envision alternative policies. Support for the troops has been given the corporate and Hollywood treatment: Yellow ribbon ads in Austin Weekly; several Welcome Home Troops ads Support for the troops has been given the corporate and Hollywood treatment: Yellow ribbon ads in Austin Weekly; several Welcome Home Troops ads


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