Presentation on theme: "Alexander The Great The Major Battles. Division of the Army Cavalry Infantry Skirmishers."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander The Great The Major Battles
Division of the Army Cavalry Infantry Skirmishers
356 B.C 323 B.C 356 BC Alexander the Great is born. 338 BC Battle of Chaeronea 336 BC Death of King Phillip and Crowning of Alexander the Great as ruler of Macedonia 334 BC Battle of the Granicus River 333 BC The Battle of Issus 331 BC Battle of Gaugamela 327 BC Marriage to Roxane and the Beginning of the Indian Quest 326 BC Battle of River Hydaspes 324 BC Troops mutiny at Opis 323 BC The Death of Alexander the Great The Pitched Battles Alexander The Great
Questions Need to be able to give an account of the battle. This should be in stages to assist marking scheme. (use keywords to help) Preparations Topography Formations Key moments for success Key moments for failures Aftermath Tactical assessment
Macedonian Battle Strategy
Macedonian Army Battle Tactics CAVALRY GREEK INFANTRY IN NORMAL FORMATION Thessalian cavalry to stop enemy outflanking Macedonian Phalanx used as a holding force Hypaspists used to keep contact between Phalanx and Companion cavalry Companion cavalry used to deliver the main blow Light troops and cavalry to stop enemy outflanking Light Troops
Heavy cavalry for delivering knock out blow and for repulsing same of the enemy. Hypaspists used to connect Phalanx and right wing. Formation less compact in comparison to phalanx: able to extend if necessary. Phalanx there to be immovable object. Light cavalry there to harass enemy. This weakens their formation before impact of heavy units. Skirmishers do the same for infantry.
Macedonian Battle strategy
Cavalry: Split between light and heavy examples. Most common known names are Thracian, Thessalian, and Companion Cavalry
The Companion Cavalry
Companions Consisting of 8 squadrons, almost exclusively made up of Macedonian nobles, they charged at the enemy lines in order to drive home a concentrated punch designed to break a hole in the enemy formation. The commander of the Companions, usually Alexander, who led his Royal Squadron, led from the front of the wedge. These men (2500) carried a 12 foot sarissa, and were heavily armoured, each wearing a metal helmet, a bronze Corselet (body armour) and bronze Greaves (shin armour).
The Companion cavalry were the elite troops of the Macedonian army. Highly trained, they were able to change to attack in any formation, though the most common was the wedge. I C B I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I B I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I A A = Unit Commander B = Wing Commander C = Rearguard Commander
Cavalry at Grannicus
Cavalry at Issus
River Pinarus Greek mercenaries Heavy cavalry Infantry Archers D Macedonian phalanx Thessalian cavalry Companions Light troops
River Pinarus Greek mercenaries Heavy cavalry Infantry Archers D Macedonian phalanx Thessalian cavalry Companions Light troops Macedonian phalanx Greek mercenaries
Cavalry at Hydaspes
Alex hides cavalry behind his infantry making his right wing look weak
Porus reinforces left wing with all cavalry and attacks, not knowing that other units are lurking
Elephants cause major damage but pincer cavalry movement effective
Indian Cavalry routed. Macedonian cavalry begin to roll up Indian infantry
The Phalanx Used as a brute-force breakthrough formation. Philip made the Phalanx a versatile weapon, with the ability to advance, hold and retreat in good order. It was primarily used as a holding force while the Companion cavalry delivered the main blow against the enemy.
Each man held a 6.5 metre-long pike or sarissa with both hands, wore a Cuirass or breastplate, and wore a shield around his neck.
The men in the front five ranks would hold their sarissas out in front. The ranks behind would hold their sarissas in the air to break the flight of arrows and other missiles. If the phalanx broke formation the battle was effectively lost, so discipline was essential.
In open order, each man occupied an area of 1.8m². As the phalanx advanced the men would close ranks until each occupied around 1m². If a defensive formation was required the men would lock shields and move closer until the men occupied 50cm².
The Macedonian phalanx was made up of 64 battalions of 256 men. (16,384 men) The phalanx could maneouvre into many different formations, but the most common were: StraightOblique Open half square Crescent Open wedge
The Hypaspists The Hypaspists were an elite infantry unit, distinct from the phalanx. They were similarly armed, but had shorter sarissas and lighter armour. They were more versatile and more highly trained than the phalanx. They were usually deployed between the phalanx and the Companion cavalry in order to hold the Macedonian line together.
Infantry at Hydaspes
Other Troops At different times Alexander used Greek allied troops and the local peoples he conquered in his armies. These men all had different areas of specialism, but they were usually lightly armed infantry, light cavalry or archers. Alexander also used them to assist him in defeating unknown forces. For example: the use of Taxiles’ troops against Porus
Skirmishers They soften opposition up for impending blow. They can protect flanks against infantry. They, like Hypaspists, can be used to connect different elements of the army. At Issus Agrianians were used to negate the threat of the Persian detachment
Thracian Peltast These men used bow and arrow, slings, and light javelin. They were lightly armed and able to evade the charge of the heavy cavalry. Scythian Archer