Presentation on theme: "The Main Principles of Animation"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Main Principles of Animation Media Technology Seminar
2 CONTENT Introduction 2D animation 3D animation Stop motion animation What is animation?History of animation.2D animation12 main princeples of animationActing. Beliveble action3D animationPrinciples from 2D applied to 3D.New principlesStop motion animationForms of stop motion animationMain principles of clay animationExampleSummary
4 To animate = to give life to!!! What is animation?To animate = to give life to!!!
5 Animation techniques Traditional animation: Computer animation: cel animation or hand-drawn animation – each frame is drawn by handstop motion animation – makes static objects appear to moveComputer animation:computer-assisted animation – computerized the traditional animation (2D and 2 ½ computer animation)computer generated animation – 3D computer graphics
6 History of animation (briefly) *Before Disney’s era:Egyptian wall decorationLeonardo da Vinchi drew limbs in different positionsThe Japanese used scrolls to tell continuous storiesGiotto’s angels seem to flight in thier perspective motions*
7 History of animationIn 1826 discovered a fundamental principle of the human eye: the persistence of visionFrenchman Paul Roget the thaumatropeIn 1828 Joseph Plateau the phenakistoscope exampleIn 1860 Pierre Desvignes inserted a strip of paper containing drawings on the inside of a drumlike cylinder.**
8 History of animation*In 1906, after motion camera was developed, Stuart Blackton created first short film ”Humourous Phases of Funny Faces” VideoIn 1910, John Bray, cell animation1914 the first fully animated cartoon ”Gertie the Dinosaur” by Winsor McCayIn 1919 First strong screen personality Felix the Cat by Otto Messmer’s.*
10 History of animation Disney’s age Walt Disney is the overpowering force in the history of animationDisney’s innovation:the use of a storyboard to review the story,the use of pencil sketches to review motion,the multi-plane camera standAnd the use of sound and color in animation (although not the first to use color).*http://img.timeinc.net/time/time100/images/main_disney.jpg
11 History of animationProblem: how to create action sequences to create more realistic?Disney set up drawing classes for animators.Result of classes were discovering new techniques how to immitated motion.They started the new era of hand drawn animation
13 2D animation Traditional technique Began with each frame being drawn, painted and then filmed.Sped up by using transparent overlays, no need to repaint the backgroundRecent animation "The Spiriting Away of Sen and Chihiro"** from wikipedia
14 Main 12 Principles Squash and stretch Timing Anticipation Staging Straight AheadAction& Pose to PoseFollow Through& Overlapping ActionSlow In& Slow OutArcsSecondary ActionExaggerationSolid Drawing (same or different as Weight)Appeal
15 Squash and StretchWhen an object moves, its movement indicates the rigidity of the object** From
16 Timing or Speed of Action *defines how well the idea behind the action will read to an audience. It reflects the wiehgt and size of an objectmore drawings between poses slow and smooth the action* From
17 AntisipationIs a preparation for the action, the action proper and the termination of the action.** From
18 StagingReadability – to stage an idea clearly, the audience's eye must be led to exactly where it needs to be at the right moment.Personality – to use characteristics that clearly define the character.Mood – a mood is staged so that it will affect the audience.
19 Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose you can lose size, volume, and proportionsMotion has spontaneity and freshnessPose to posemore planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene.Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled.
20 Follow Through and Overlapping Action is the termination of an actionnothing stops all at once.Overlapping Actionmaintains a continual flow between whole phrases of actionsmakes objects seem more natural.** From
21 Slowing in/out or Eases Deals with the spacing of the inbetween drawings between the extreme poses.Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like.** From
22 Arcs All actions follow an arc or slightly circular path Think of natural movements in the terms of a pendulum swingingIn Computer Animation, motion is usually represented in a timeline view using splines(arcs).The method used for calculating interpolated keyframe values determines the characteristic of the arc(motion).** From
23 Secondary ActionAdds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animationImportant in raising the interest and adding a realistic complexity to the animation
24 ExaggerationLike a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actionsIf he is angry, make him furious** From
25 Solid DrawingTransform form, weight, volume solidity into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life.3D is movement in space.4thD is movement in time.
26 AppealLive actor’s charisma = appeal of animated character To create appealing pose avoid "twins”**http://images.google.com/imgreswww.idmp.co.uk/cartoon
27 Old animation cliche ”An animator is an actor with a pencil”
28 John Lasseter, November 4, 1996 "Animators should focus on the acting...make the characters think and act...start with the body first, next focus on the eyes, and last focus on the mouth. When reviewing reels we look at the acting first."John Lasseter, November 4, 1996the chief creative officer at Pixar Animation Studios and Walt Disney Feature Animation
29 Acting Goog acting = Believable acting Believable acting means that the audience feels that the character's actions are the result of its own inner motives.** From wiki
30 Believable acting Feel Think "feel" your character when you create animation.Thinklook for opportunities to show thinking process, which leads to decision and action.
31 Believable acting React Consistency Every action must have a reason. Make sure you know what your character is reacting to, and that the reaction is reasonable.ConsistencyRetain a consistent attitude to your character's reactions. A shy character (small, timid movements) that unexpectedly acts in an extroverted way with no clear reason, will suffer great damage to its credibility.
32 Believable acting Personality Mood The character's personality dictates its reactions, its acting. Try to get to know your character the way you know a family member or someone you work with. What makes him tick? What is he afraid of? What are his problems?MoodMood resembles personality - it, too, dictates the character's reactions - but unlike personality, its effect is temporary.
34 3D animation3D computer graphics is a three-dimensional representation of geometric data is stored in the computerfor the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer graphics.* From wikiThe art of 3D modeling, which prepares geometric data for 3D computer graphics is akin to sculpting or photography, while the art of 2D graphics is analogous to painting.
35 Principles for 3D The original principles are still relevant today Can be applied to almost any type of animation, including 3D.* From wikiBut, some of these principles require updates.Few new additional principles are also needed
36 2D principles for 3D Apply in the same way Timing Anticipation Staging Follow trough and overlapExaggerationSecondary actionNeed to be updatedSquash&StretchSlow in&Slow outArcsStraight ahead action& pose to poseAppeal* From wiki
37 Updated principles 3D Squash&Stretch Scale and Rotate transformation is usedImplemented with a variety of techniques:skin and muscle,springs,direct mesh manipulation and morphing.
38 Updated principles Slow in&Slow out In 3D animation the inbetweening is done automatically using splines interpolation.Slow in and slow out is achieved by adjusting the tension, direction or bias, and continuity of the splines.**
39 Updated principles Arcs * The path of action from one extreme to another is controlled by the same spline that controls the slow in and out of the inbetween values.This simplifies computing the inbetweens.The method used for calculating interpolated keyframe values determines the characteristic of the arc(motion).**
40 Updated principles Straight ahead action& pose to pose Instead of them Motion capture and dynamics simulations are used in 3D computer animation.
41 Updated principles Appeal Complexity and consistency of motion are two elements of character appeal that can be easily developed with 3D computer animation.Writing down the ways in which the character moves, how he/she reacts to different situations, and how he/she relates to other characters can help define the main characteristics of the character’s personality.
42 New principles for 3D Visual styling Blending cartoon physics with real world physicsUsing cinematographyMastering facial animation
43 New principles for 3D Visual styling means more than just how things are supposed to look.it has a significant impact on rendering, on animation techniques, and overall production complexity.
44 New principles for 3D Blending cartoon physics with real world physics it is possible today to blend motion from different sourcesnecessary to define clear guidelines for a variety of motion/animation styles:including cartoon physics,realistic cartoon,realistic human motionrotoscoping
45 New principles for 3D Using cinematography a crucial component of our animation due to full camera control available:positionsmovementnot just an afterthought
46 New principles for 3D Mastering facial animation more facial animation control than ever before:Even the subtle motion of eyelids and eyeballs.establish the level of facial control and techniquesbuild a catalog of facial morph targets or blend shapesreuse of the catalog
48 Stop Motion Animation Forms of stop motion animation: Clay animation Clay paintingCutout animationPuppet animationDirect manipulation animationObject animationTime lapse animationStrata-cut animation
49 Battle of the Stag Beetles Stop motion pioneersThe Battle of the Stag Beetles (1910) by Ladyslaw StarewiczThe Ant and the Grasshopper (1911),The Tale of the Fox (1937),*Battle of the Stag BeetlesThe Tale of the Fox* From wiki
50 Current works*Aardman is famous for its claymation/stop-motion animation productions, particularly plasticine duo Wallace & Gromit.Last year Christiane Cegavske's "Blood Tea and Red String" (2005) is a handmade stop-motion fairy tale for adults.* From wiki
52 Principles for Clay animation Squash and Stretch characters should feel like an elastic mass, squashing on impact and stretching on recoil or anticipation. When done in clay animation it's a sequence of sculptures (replacement animation).* From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”
53 Principles for Clay animation Stagingthe overall framing of your subject in the scene should be known before shooting started.You can’t easily change the angle of view* From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”
54 Principles for Clay animation Follow-Thfoughappendages will keep moving after the main body of an objects stops.plan the main part of body and supplement parts in advancean effect on constructing the characters’ base (skeletons)Overlapping actionall the parts of character do not have arrive at the same pose at the same time.looseness in the joints of characters skeletonEach character’s parts can move with varyung speed
55 Clay animation. Tools 3 categories of tools * sculpting tools To pinch, twist, add, subtract, soften, and smooth clay:hands, mineral oil, brushes, texture pads,pasta making machine, pin-eye tool,* From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”
56 Clay animation. Tools * armature tools an armature is the skeleton inside your character that supports the clay and allows it to move in small increments for animating:wire cutters, hacksaw, table clamp, drills, wires* From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”
57 Clay animation. Tools Clays water-based clay: grey or brown , good for making simple hardening decorative objects (not for animation)hardening clay: it allows the baking of body parts that are not intended to bend, (you have to bake it)oil-based clay: flexible, will not harden on the air, do not melt undet the lights (Van Aken, Pongo)* From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”
59 SummaryCreated in the early 1930s by animators at the Walt Disney Studios the twelve principles of animation are still relevant nowadays.They became one of the foundations of character animation and they are mostly about five things:acting the performance,directing the performance,representing reality (through drawing, modeling, and rendering),interpreting real world physics,editing a sequence of actions.They can be applied to almost any type of animation.Each animatior should follow these ”golden rules”
60 References History of Animation The PhenakistiscopeA brief history of Gertie the DinosaurHistory of Felix the CatPhysical AnimationApplying the 12 Principles to 3D AnimationSecrets of Clay animation Revealed. AnimateClay.Com.