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The Main Principles of Animation

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1 The Main Principles of Animation
Media Technology Seminar

2 CONTENT Introduction 2D animation 3D animation Stop motion animation
What is animation? History of animation. 2D animation 12 main princeples of animation Acting. Beliveble action 3D animation Principles from 2D applied to 3D. New principles Stop motion animation Forms of stop motion animation Main principles of clay animation Example Summary

3 Introduction

4 To animate = to give life to!!!
What is animation? To animate = to give life to!!!

5 Animation techniques Traditional animation: Computer animation:
cel animation or hand-drawn animation – each frame is drawn by hand stop motion animation – makes static objects appear to move Computer animation: computer-assisted animation – computerized the traditional animation (2D and 2 ½ computer animation) computer generated animation – 3D computer graphics

6 History of animation (briefly)
* Before Disney’s era: Egyptian wall decoration Leonardo da Vinchi drew limbs in different positions The Japanese used scrolls to tell continuous stories Giotto’s angels seem to flight in thier perspective motions *

7 History of animation In 1826 discovered a fundamental principle of the human eye: the persistence of vision Frenchman Paul Roget the thaumatrope In 1828 Joseph Plateau the phenakistoscope example In 1860 Pierre Desvignes inserted a strip of paper containing drawings on the inside of a drumlike cylinder. * *

8 History of animation * In 1906, after motion camera was developed, Stuart Blackton created first short film ”Humourous Phases of Funny Faces” Video In 1910, John Bray, cell animation 1914 the first fully animated cartoon ”Gertie the Dinosaur” by Winsor McCay In 1919 First strong screen personality Felix the Cat by Otto Messmer’s. *

9 Humourous Phases of Funny Faces

10 History of animation Disney’s age
Walt Disney is the overpowering force in the history of animation Disney’s innovation: the use of a storyboard to review the story, the use of pencil sketches to review motion, the multi-plane camera stand And the use of sound and color in animation (although not the first to use color). *

11 History of animation Problem: how to create action sequences to create more realistic? Disney set up drawing classes for animators. Result of classes were discovering new techniques how to immitated motion. They started the new era of hand drawn animation

12 2D animation

13 2D animation Traditional technique
Began with each frame being drawn, painted and then filmed. Sped up by using transparent overlays, no need to repaint the background Recent animation "The Spiriting Away of Sen and Chihiro" * * from wikipedia

14 Main 12 Principles Squash and stretch Timing Anticipation Staging
Straight AheadAction& Pose to Pose Follow Through& Overlapping Action Slow In& Slow Out Arcs Secondary Action Exaggeration Solid Drawing (same or different as Weight) Appeal

15 Squash and Stretch When an object moves, its movement indicates the rigidity of the object * * From

16 Timing or Speed of Action
* defines how well the idea behind the action will read to an audience. It reflects the wiehgt and size of an object more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action * From

17 Antisipation Is a preparation for the action, the action proper and the termination of the action. * * From

18 Staging Readability – to stage an idea clearly, the audience's eye must be led to exactly where it needs to be at the right moment. Personality – to use characteristics that clearly define the character. Mood – a mood is staged so that it will affect the audience.

19 Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose
you can lose size, volume, and proportions Motion has spontaneity and freshness Pose to pose more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled.

20 Follow Through and Overlapping Action
is the termination of an action nothing stops all at once. Overlapping Action maintains a continual flow between whole phrases of actions makes objects seem more natural. * * From

21 Slowing in/out or Eases
Deals with the spacing of the inbetween drawings between the extreme poses. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like. * * From

22 Arcs All actions follow an arc or slightly circular path
Think of natural movements in the terms of a pendulum swinging In Computer Animation, motion is usually represented in a timeline view using splines(arcs). The method used for calculating interpolated keyframe values determines the characteristic of the arc(motion). * * From

23 Secondary Action Adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation Important in raising the interest and adding a realistic complexity to the animation

24 Exaggeration Like a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions If he is angry, make him furious * * From

25 Solid Drawing Transform form, weight, volume solidity into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three-and four-dimensional life. 3D is movement in space. 4thD is movement in time.

26 Appeal Live actor’s charisma = appeal of animated character To create appealing pose avoid "twins” * *

27 Old animation cliche ”An animator is an actor with a pencil”

28 John Lasseter, November 4, 1996
"Animators should focus on the acting...make the characters think and act...start with the body first, next focus on the eyes, and last focus on the mouth. When reviewing reels we look at the acting first." John Lasseter, November 4, 1996 the chief creative officer at Pixar Animation Studios and Walt Disney Feature Animation

29 Acting Goog acting = Believable acting
Believable acting means that the audience feels that the character's actions are the result of its own inner motives. * * From wiki

30 Believable acting Feel Think
"feel" your character when you create animation. Think look for opportunities to show thinking process, which leads to decision and action.

31 Believable acting React Consistency
Every action must have a reason. Make sure you know what your character is reacting to, and that the reaction is reasonable. Consistency Retain a consistent attitude to your character's reactions. A shy character (small, timid movements) that unexpectedly acts in an extroverted way with no clear reason, will suffer great damage to its credibility.

32 Believable acting Personality Mood
The character's personality dictates its reactions, its acting. Try to get to know your character the way you know a family member or someone you work with. What makes him tick? What is he afraid of? What are his problems? Mood Mood resembles personality - it, too, dictates the character's reactions - but unlike personality, its effect is temporary.

33 3D animation

34 3D animation 3D computer graphics is a three-dimensional representation of geometric data is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer graphics. * From wiki The art of 3D modeling, which prepares geometric data for 3D computer graphics is akin to sculpting or photography, while the art of 2D graphics is analogous to painting.

35 Principles for 3D The original principles are still relevant today
Can be applied to almost any type of animation, including 3D. * From wiki But, some of these principles require updates. Few new additional principles are also needed

36 2D principles for 3D Apply in the same way Timing Anticipation Staging
Follow trough and overlap Exaggeration Secondary action Need to be updated Squash&Stretch Slow in&Slow out Arcs Straight ahead action& pose to pose Appeal * From wiki

37 Updated principles 3D Squash&Stretch
Scale and Rotate transformation is used Implemented with a variety of techniques: skin and muscle, springs, direct mesh manipulation and morphing.

38 Updated principles Slow in&Slow out
In 3D animation the inbetweening is done automatically using splines interpolation. Slow in and slow out is achieved by adjusting the tension, direction or bias, and continuity of the splines. * *

39 Updated principles Arcs *
The path of action from one extreme to another is controlled by the same spline that controls the slow in and out of the inbetween values. This simplifies computing the inbetweens. The method used for calculating interpolated keyframe values determines the characteristic of the arc(motion). * *

40 Updated principles Straight ahead action& pose to pose
Instead of them Motion capture and dynamics simulations are used in 3D computer animation.

41 Updated principles Appeal
Complexity and consistency of motion are two elements of character appeal that can be easily developed with 3D computer animation. Writing down the ways in which the character moves, how he/she reacts to different situations, and how he/she relates to other characters can help define the main characteristics of the character’s personality.

42 New principles for 3D Visual styling
Blending cartoon physics with real world physics Using cinematography Mastering facial animation

43 New principles for 3D Visual styling
means more than just how things are supposed to look. it has a significant impact on rendering, on animation techniques, and overall production complexity.

44 New principles for 3D Blending cartoon physics with real world physics
it is possible today to blend motion from different sources necessary to define clear guidelines for a variety of motion/animation styles: including cartoon physics, realistic cartoon, realistic human motion rotoscoping

45 New principles for 3D Using cinematography
a crucial component of our animation due to full camera control available: positions movement not just an afterthought

46 New principles for 3D Mastering facial animation
more facial animation control than ever before: Even the subtle motion of eyelids and eyeballs. establish the level of facial control and techniques build a catalog of facial morph targets or blend shapes reuse of the catalog

47 Stop Motion Animation

48 Stop Motion Animation Forms of stop motion animation: Clay animation
Clay painting Cutout animation Puppet animation Direct manipulation animation Object animation Time lapse animation Strata-cut animation

49 Battle of the Stag Beetles
Stop motion pioneers The Battle of the Stag Beetles (1910) by Ladyslaw Starewicz The Ant and the Grasshopper (1911), The Tale of the Fox (1937), * Battle of the Stag Beetles The Tale of the Fox * From wiki

50 Current works * Aardman is famous for its claymation/stop-motion animation productions, particularly plasticine duo Wallace & Gromit. Last year Christiane Cegavske's "Blood Tea and Red String" (2005) is a handmade stop-motion fairy tale for adults. * From wiki

51 Clay animation

52 Principles for Clay animation
Squash and Stretch characters should feel like an elastic mass, squashing on impact and stretching on recoil  or anticipation. When done  in  clay animation it's   a sequence of  sculptures (replacement animation). * From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”

53 Principles for Clay animation
Staging the overall framing of your subject in the scene should be known before shooting started. You can’t easily change the angle of view * From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”

54 Principles for Clay animation
Follow-Thfough appendages will keep moving after the main body of an objects stops. plan the main part of body and supplement parts in advance an effect on constructing the characters’ base (skeletons) Overlapping action all the parts of character do not have arrive at the same pose at the same time. looseness in the joints of characters skeleton Each character’s parts can move with varyung speed

55 Clay animation. Tools 3 categories of tools * sculpting tools
To pinch, twist, add, subtract, soften, and smooth clay: hands, mineral oil, brushes, texture pads, pasta making machine, pin-eye tool, * From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”

56 Clay animation. Tools * armature tools
an armature is the skeleton inside your character that supports the clay and allows it to move in small increments for animating: wire cutters, hacksaw, table clamp, drills, wires * From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”

57 Clay animation. Tools Clays
water-based clay: grey or brown , good for making simple hardening decorative objects (not for animation) hardening clay: it allows the baking of body parts that are not intended to bend, (you have to bake it) oil-based clay: flexible, will not harden on the air, do not melt undet the lights (Van Aken, Pongo) * From ”Secrets of Clay Animation”

58 My own experience

59 Summary Created in the early 1930s by animators at the Walt Disney Studios the twelve principles of animation are still relevant nowadays. They became one of the foundations of character animation and they are mostly about five things: acting the performance, directing the performance, representing reality (through drawing, modeling, and rendering), interpreting real world physics, editing a sequence of actions. They can be applied to almost any type of animation. Each animatior should follow these ”golden rules”

60 References History of Animation
The Phenakistiscope A brief history of Gertie the Dinosaur History of Felix the Cat Physical Animation Applying the 12 Principles to 3D Animation Secrets of Clay animation Revealed. AnimateClay.Com.

61 Thank you!!! Questions???

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