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Methanol (MeOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of conventionally and organically grown in Korea (Fig.1) kiwifruit’s cultivars ‘Hayward’ (‘KHaC', ‘KHaO')

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Presentation on theme: "Methanol (MeOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of conventionally and organically grown in Korea (Fig.1) kiwifruit’s cultivars ‘Hayward’ (‘KHaC', ‘KHaO')"— Presentation transcript:

1 Methanol (MeOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of conventionally and organically grown in Korea (Fig.1) kiwifruit’s cultivars ‘Hayward’ (‘KHaC', ‘KHaO') and 'Bidan‘ (‘KBiC', ‘KBiO') were investigated. FTIR, 3D-FL spectroscopy, ESI-MS, DSC and radical scavenging assays were used for characterization of bioactive compounds and the levels of their antioxidant activities (1-4).. ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL KIWIFRUIT: MYTHS VS. REALITY, ANTIOXIDANT, QUENCHING, ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND HEALTH EFFECTS Yong Seo Park 1, Myang Hee Im 2, Hanna Leontowicz 3, Maria Leontowicz 3, Milan Suhaj 4, Elena Katrich 5, Moshe Weisz 5, Zeev Tashma 5, Shela Gorinstein 5# 1 Department of Horticultural Science, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam, South Korea; 2 Regional Crop Research Institute, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3 Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Warsaw, Poland; 4 Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia; 5 The Institute for Drug Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Jerusalem, Israel 1. Background Fruits with high content of bioactive compounds are effective in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis (1-4). In this investigation the bioactivity of conventionally and organically grown kiwifruit’s cultivars ‘Hayward’ (‘KHaC', ‘KHaO') and 'Bidan' (‘KBiC', ‘KBiO') were studied. 2. Materials and methods 3. Results The significantly highest levels of bioactive compounds were estimated in methanol extract of ‘KBiO' (P < 0.05) than in other investigated kiwifruit samples, but the difference between the organic and conventional kiwifruit was not significant (Fig. 2). #This research is dedicated to the memory of my dear brother Prof. Simon Trakhtenberg, who encouraged and supported me and our research group during all his life. The DSC thermograms of the phenolic extracts showed only one endothermic peak at different temperatures, depending on investigated samples and year of collection. The kiwifruit extracts decreased the proliferation of both Calu-6 and SNU-601 for human pulmonary carcinoma and gastric carcinoma cells, and the effect was concentration dependent. The proliferativity for concentrations of 1000µg/ml for ‘KBiO' methanol extract was lower than for other investigated samples. The interaction between drugs and human serum albumin plays an important role in the distribution and metabolism of drugs. The complexation reaction between flavonoids, and kiwifruit extracts, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed that kiwifruit polyphenol extracts have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and comparable with quercetin (1-4). AB Fig. 2. A, B, three-dimensional fluorescence (3D-FL) spectrum of methanol extracts of conventional and organic kiwifruits ‘Bidan’ (0.25 mg/mL) A B Fig. 3. Sun ray icon plot of organically (O) and conventionally (C) grown ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit treated with ethylene (0,6,12,18,24 hrs) were compared by the examined variables (fruit firmness, sensory value, soluble solid content, total tartaric acidity, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, electron donating ability, nitrite scavenging activity, angiotension-1 converting enzyme, total phenolics). Fig. 1. Kiwifruit orchard Heanam County, Jeonnam province, Korea, 2011 (S.Gorinstein, Y.S. Park) A B Fig. 4. ESI-MS spectra of (A): methanol fraction (MeOH) of ‘KBiC’ with an insert of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of ‘KBiC’; (B), MeOH fraction of ‘KBiO’ with an insert of EtOAc fraction of ‘KBiO’ in negative ion mode. The main peaks (m/z) with Relative Abundance (RA, %), using different extraction procedures MeOH and EtOAc, for ‘KBiCMeOH' and ‘KBiOMeOH' (Fig. 4A and 4B) were at: 111(100, 100), 129(15, 15), 175(55, 55), 191(75, 75), 391(40, 80); for ‘KBiCEtOAc' and ‘KBiOEtOAc' (inserts in 4A and 4B): 111(12, 28), 217(45, 40), 311(30, 28), 325 (50,33), 339(43,30), 391(100,100). The main m/z peaks for ‘KHaCMeOH' and ‘KHaOMeOH' were at: 111(38, 43), 191(100, 100) and 391(47, 90); ‘KHaCEtOAc' and ‘KHaOEtOAc' - 111(12, 12), 217(22, 22); 311 (15, 12), 325(20, 18), 339(12, 12), 391(100, 100). The difference between conventional and organic 'Hayward' and 'Bidan' cultivars was only in RA of peaks, but between the cultivars was also in the shift of the peaks. A B C Fig. 5. DSC curves of EtOAc fractions of (A): ‘KHaO’ (a), ‘KHaC’ (b), ‘KBiO’ (c), ‘KBiC (d)’; MeOH fractions (B): ‘KHaO’ (a), ‘KHaC’ (b), ‘KBiO’ (c), ‘KBiC’ (d); MeOH extracts (C): ‘KHaC’ (a), ‘KHaO’ (b), ‘KBiC’ (c), ‘KBiO’ (d). The pans were heated in the calorimeter at 10 o C min over the range o C. Endothermic peaks were at the same temperature [EtOAc and MeOH fractions (Fig.5A and 5B)] with nearly 3-fold and 14-fold more heat was required to soften the ‘KHaC’ that the ‘KHaO’. MeOH extract 2-fold more heat required for ‘KHaO’ (Fig 5C). The endothermic peaks for ‘KBiC’ and ‘KBiO’ were at the same temperature with the same number of peaks for EtOAc, but the enthalpy of transition was different and as in case of 'Hayward' 1.8-fold more heat required for conventional. In MeOH fractions and extracts the temperature peaks were similar, but 3.3-fold and 5.2-fold more heat required for organic 'Bidan'. Fig. 6. Cell viability (% of Control) of human cancer cells of the Calu-6 and Snu-601 lines in the presence of MeOH extracts: A, ‘KHaC’; B, ‘KHaO’; C, ‘KBiC’; D, ‘KBiO’. The proliferativity (%) at 1000 µg/mL (Fig. 6A, B) for 'KHaO' on Calu-6 is 54.54%, and on SNU-601 is 60.08%, 'KHaC' for Calu-6 (56.23%) and SNU-601 (61.56%); for 'KBiO' on Calu-6 is 48.84%, on SNU-601 is 53.36% (Fig. 6C, D), 'KBiC' for Calu-6 (47.25%) and SNU-601 (52.28%). Our results show that antioxidant activity of the studied samples correlates with their antiproliferative activity. Significantly different values between the organic and conventional samples were not found. 4. Discussion 5. Conclusion Relatively high contents of bioactive compounds, positive antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of two cultivars of kiwifruit justify their use as a source of valuable antioxidants. 6. References Each ray represents a different variable; the middle of the ray comprises the mean value of the variable. Values for each parameter are connected by a cord. This plot clearly demonstrates the found differences between organic and conventional kiwifruit [Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Fig.3]. 1. Gorinstein et al., Phytochemical Analysis, 21, Phytochemical Analysis 2. Park et al., Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65, 186–191.Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 3. Im et al., International Journal of Food Properties, 15, 49– Leontowicz et al., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 581–589.Food and Chemical Toxicology 5. Our publications-


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