Presentation on theme: " Tie back hair Remove jewellery Put on clean apron Wash hands before handling food, after touching hair, face or sneezing Make sure work area."— Presentation transcript:
Tie back hair Remove jewellery Put on clean apron Wash hands before handling food, after touching hair, face or sneezing Make sure work area is clean
Never handle electric equipment with wet hands Keep handles of saucepans turned in Never walk around while holding knives or hot saucepans Never run in the kitchen Wipe up spills at once Use oven gloves when removing hot tins from the oven
A recipe has: The name of the dish. Sometimes a picture of the finished dish. A list of ingredients. The method (instructions on how to make the dish). Serving suggestions. Oven temperature and cooking time. Before starting to cook, read the recipe well.
Solids are weighed in grams (g). Since a gram is a very small amount, you will rarely see less than 25g written in a recipe. If less than 25g is needed, the recipe will usually say a teaspoon (5g), dessertspoon (10g) or a tablespoon (15g). Recipes mean a level spoon unless otherwise stated. Note: 1,000g = 1kg.
Liquids are measured in millilitres (ml). There are 1,000ml in one litre (L). A measuring jug is used to measure liquid; again, less than 25ml is rare in recipes. Teaspoons (5ml), dessertspoons (10ml) and tablespoons (15ml) can also be used to measure liquids. Measuring spoons, while not essential, can be used for small amounts, e.g. baking powder. Recipes mean a level teaspoon unless otherwise stated level heaped
Cookers can run on either electricity, gas or solid fuel. A cooker can consist of: A hob. A grill (sometimes also a small top oven). An oven. Preheating: Ovens can take 10 minutes to heat up (gas ovens heat up more quickly). You must preheat the oven for bread and cakes in particular. Setting the oven: Oven temperature is written in degrees Celsius (°C) or gas mark 1 to 9. Some older ovens may be in degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Each recipe will give an oven temperature and a cooking time.
There are basically two different types of oven: Conventional. Fan (fan in oven at the back). The temperature in a fan oven is the same on every shelf. In a conventional oven, the top shelf is hottest, the middle shelf is as you set it and the bottom shelf is coolest. Note: Arrange the shelves before you turn the oven on. Never place food on the floor of the oven, as it will burn. 205°C 195°C 200°C
Fill the skin with hot saopy water Move everything to the right of the skin Wipe down counter Start with cleaniest item Dry well Place on counter to be checked by teacher
Under sinkCutlery drawerPress - 2 saucepans2 kniveschopping board - 2 pot stands2 forksmeasuring jug - 1 frying pan2 spoonssieve - 1 colander2 teaspoons2 plates - 1 wire wrackmeasuring spoonsgrater pastry brushweighing scales peelermixing bowl masher rolling pin 2 wooden spoons Fish slice spatula
Reasons for cooking food Heat kills harmful bacteria Helps to preserve food longer Makes food easier to digest Cooking improves the appearance, colour and flavour
Protein coagulates and hardens food e.g. eggs and cheese Some foods loose water and shrink e.g. meat, fish Starch absorbs liquid and swells e.g. rice, pasta and thickened sauces Some foods soften and break up e.g. potatoes and apples Fats melt e.g butter Colour changes e.g. meat and bread Some nutrients are lost e.g. vit B and C and minerals
Greater loss of nutrients Loss of colour, flavour and texture Toughness and indigestibility e.g. meat and cheese Waste of fuel
ConductionConvectionRadiation Heat passes from molecule to molecule e.g. shallow frying heat travels from hot pan into the food Heat travels in convection current through water/air/oil. These heat the food. Moist cookery methods are based on convection of water or steam which is heated at the heat source, rises then falls as it cools Heat travels to the food in straight rays. Grilling cooks by radiation the outside is heated by rays from the grill, and the heat then passes into the food by conduction