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Hitler’s Early Aggression Begins to rearm in 1934 –In violation of Versailles France & England did nothing –Turns around German economy A government jobs.

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Presentation on theme: "Hitler’s Early Aggression Begins to rearm in 1934 –In violation of Versailles France & England did nothing –Turns around German economy A government jobs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hitler’s Early Aggression Begins to rearm in 1934 –In violation of Versailles France & England did nothing –Turns around German economy A government jobs program like the New Deal? Took over Austria in March of 1938 –France & England did nothing Then announced plans to take over the “Sudetenland (Western Czechoslovakia)

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3 VOCABULARY Giving a country (or a person) what it wants and hoping that this will satisfy that country and it will not demand more. Appeasement

4 The Policy of Appeasement France and England’s approach to Hitler’s aggression –US was isolationist (totally out of Europe) The rest of Europe was afraid to confront Hitler –Hoped he would be happy taking a little Hitler & Chamberlain sign the “Munich Pact” (September 1938) –Gave Hitler the Sudetenland in return for a promise that he would take nothing else.

5 The Munich Pact English Prime Minister Chamberlain said the treaty guaranteed “peace in our time”

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7 Europe in 1939

8 The Nonaggression Pact (August 22, 1939) Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s USSR agreed not to fight each other Allowed Hitler to focus on Western Europe –War might not have been possible if Hitler had to fear attack by USSR Impact on American Communists –Many strongly opposed US entry into War –Many others resigned from the Communist Party

9 The War in Europe Begins Hitler invades Poland on Sept 1, 1939 –Stalin takes Eastern Poland “Blitzkrieg” (“Lightening war”) –German tactic to overwhelm opponent with tanks, planes, and all out attack France and England declare war on Germany Little fighting over next six months Hitler takes Norway & Denmark in March, 1940

10 The Invasion of Poland

11 The Invasion of France Attack begins in May of 1940 Paris captured in June of 1940 Now England against Hitler and all of his resources –Soviets have nonaggression pact with Hitler –US remaining neutral France divided into two –German occupied France –“Vichy France” Technically independent, but really a German puppet

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13 France after June of 1940

14 Europe in Sept 1942

15 The Battle of Britain August – September 1940 Hitler’s attempt to bomb England to “soften” it for invasion –England not successfully invaded since 1066!!! Mostly an attack on civilians English anti-aircraft guns prevent invasion

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20 Winston Churchill Named Prime Minister of England in May, 1940 “We shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender…”

21 VOCABULARY a government policy based on the belief that country’s interests are best served by avoiding alliances with other countries Isolationism

22 US Isolationism in 1920’s & 1930’s Had rejected League of Nations –Wanted to be “masters of own fate” Nye Committee Findings (1929) –US had been dragged into WWI by greedy bankers and arms makers In reality, still very connected to the world –Trade & finance –International treaties (Kellogg-Briand, etc.)

23 Reasons for American Isolationism History of isolationism –Geography allowed US to stay out of other’s affairs Memories of WW I –110,000 American dead –Europeans didn’t pay back loans –Europe still worse off than ever –Common belief that greedy bankers & arms makers had gotten us into the War

24 Neutrality Acts of Laws attempting to avoid America “accidentally” being brought into War Provisions –No transportation of any war materials –Non-military stuff sold on “cash & carry” basis –US citizens cannot travel on ships of warring countries Relaxed when France fell in June of 1940

25 The Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact Strange because –Hitler hated Communism –Hitler hated Stalin –Hitler thought Russians inferior

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27 Germany Invades Soviet Union June 7, 1941 Turning point of the War –Germany must fight a two front war –Hitler can never fully defeat Stalin Size of Russian population Distance of supply lines & bad roads weather

28 Two Major Russian Sieges Sept Jan.1944 (almost 900 days!) Nothing got in or out 700,000 Russians died August 1942-July 1943 Death toll of over 2 million Loss was beginning of end for Hitler Leningrad Stalingrad

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30 The Move from Isolationism FDR sees need for US involvement, but must be aware of public opinion –80% oppose war by late 1941! FDR wants repeal of Neutrality Acts –Gets only right to sell weapons “cash & carry” US spends $1 billion on defense & has peacetime draft in 1940 Lend-Lease Act (March 1941) –Post-reelection –US to “loan” weapons to Allies (England) Eventually to USSR after June of “41


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