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Presentation on theme: "DRUGS AFFECTING UTERINE MOTILITY"— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives At the end of the lectures, students should be able to know and understand the: 1.Drugs used to induce & augment labor. 2.Drugs used to control post partum hemorrhage. 3.Drugs used to induce pathological abortion. 4.Drugs used to arrest premature labor. 5.The mechanism of action and adverse effects of each drug.

3 Drugs affecting uterine contractility
Oxytocic drug : Drugs stimulate uterine smooth muscles during pregnancy , produce contraction that promotes rapid labor Tocolytics: Drugs relax uterine smooth muscles

4 Oxytocin ( posterior pituitary hormone)
OXYTOCIC Drugs Oxytocin ( posterior pituitary hormone) Ergot alkaloids Ergotamine Ergonovine Methyl ergometrine

5 Oxytocic Agents ( cont.)
Prostaglandines PGE2 PGF2α Misoprostol

6 OXYTOCIN (SyntocinonR)
Synthesis Is a posterior pituitary hormone Oxytocin secretion occurs by sensory stimulation from cervix ,vagina , and from suckling at breast.



9 Pharmacokinetics of oxytocin
Destroyed in GIT Not effective orally Given IV or nasal spray ( in cases of impaired milk ejection) Not bound to plasma proteins Eliminated by liver & kidneys Half life = 5 minutes

10 Pharmacodynamics of oxytocin
Mechanism of action Acts through GPCR  activation of phospholipase C  production of IP3  mobilization of calcium from its stores (SR) Also, activates voltage sensitive calcium channels causing an increase in cytoplasmic calcium level that stimulates uterine contraction .

11 Pharmacological actions of oxytocin
Uterus Small doses stimulates both the frequency and force of uterine contractility particularly of the fundus segment of the uterus. These contractions resemble the normal physiological contractions of uterus (contractions followed by relaxation)


13 Large doses causes sustained contractions
Immature uterus is resistant to oxytocin. Contract uterine smooth muscle only at term Sensitivity increases to 8 fold in last 9 weeks and 30 times in early labor. Clinically oxytocin is given only when uterine cervix is soft and dilated.

14 Cont. Mammary glands Stimulate myoepithelial cells surrounding mammary alveoli produce milk production Without oxytocin induced contraction lactation can not occur.

15 Therapeutic Uses of Oxytocin
Facilitation of labor at term IV-infusion (Reinforcement of labor) 2- Induction of labor for conditions requiring early vaginal delivery ( I.V infusion ) e.g. Placental insufficiency ( mild preeclampsia, maternal diabetes) Post maturity Premature rupture membranes Uterine inertia

16 Therapeutic Uses of Oxytocin (continue)
3- Post partum uterine hemorrhage after vaginal or cesarean delivery (I.M) (ergometrine is often used) 4- Impaired milk ejection One puff in each nostril 2-3 min before nursing 5- Incomplete abortion

17 Adverse effects Fetal Distress, death Maternal Uterine rupture
Fluid retention, water intoxication Hyponatremia, heart failure Seizures Death Bolus injection can produce hypotension, so used as infusion at a controlled rate

18 Contraindications a) Hypersensitivity b) Prematurity
c) Abnormal fetal position d) Evidence of fetal distress e) Cephalopelvic disproportion Precautions a) Multiple pregnancy b) Previous c- section c) Hypertension

19 Ergot Alkaloids Natural Synthetic Ergonovine Methyl ergometrine
Methyl ergonovine

20 Effects on the Uterus Alkaloid derivatives induce TETANIC CONTRACTION of uterus without relaxation in between(not like normal physiological contractions) It causes contractions of uterus as a whole i.e. fundus and cervix(tend to compress rather than to expel the fetus) Difference between oxytocin & ergots??


22 Ergot alkaloids( pharmacokinetics)
Absorbed orally from GIT (tablets) Usually given I.M Extensively metabolized in liver. 90% of metabolites are excreted in bile

23 Preparations Clinical uses Syntometrine(ergometrine 0.5 mg
Post partum hemorrhage Hastens involution of the uterus Preparations Syntometrine(ergometrine 0.5 mg + oxytocin 5.0 I.U), I.M.

24 Side effects Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Hypertension
Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels ( toes & fingers) Gangrene

25 Contraindications: Induction of labor 1st and 2nd stage of labor
vascular disease Severe hepatic and renal impairment Severe hypertension

26 Prostaglandins Dinoprostone ( synthetic PGE2)
Given intravaginally as a gel or tablet Given extra-amniotically as a solution 1st metabolism in lung ( 95%) Metabolized in local tissues Metabolites excreted in urine Some absorption directly through cervix & lymphatics into maternal circulation Half-life min

27 Effects of dinoprostone
Stimulation of G protein coupled PGE2 receptors  contraction of myometrium Ripening of cervix due to direct effect on cervical collagenase resulting in softening Has natriuretic effect Superior to oxytocin for women with pre-eclampsia , as no fluid retention

28 Therapeutic uses of dinoprostone
Facilitation of labor at term Induction of labor Medical Abortifacient Used as vaginal suppositories alone or with oral misoprostol

29 Adverse effects Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Incomplete abortion
Increase blood loss

30 Carboprost: 15 methyl PGF2α Analog
Therapeutic uses Induction of labor To control PPH IMI For 2nd trimester abortion , single intra-amniotic injection

31 Adverse effects Vomiting, diarrhea Transient rise of temperature
Bronchoconstriction Fetal toxicity uncommon

32 Misoprostol ( synthetic PGE1)
Given intravaginally as a gel or tablets

33 Contraindications of prostaglandins:
a) Mechanical obstruction of delivery b) Fetal distress c) Predisposition to uterine rupture Precautions: a) Asthma b) Multiple pregnancy c) Glaucoma d) Uterine rupture

34 Difference B/w Oxytocin and Prostaglandins
Character Contraction through out pregnancy Only at term Contraction soften the cervix Does not soften the cervix Cervix

35 Difference (cont’d) Prostaglandins Oxytocin Character Longer Shorter
Duration of action Induce abortion in 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Used as vaginal suppository for induction of labor Induce and augment labor and post partum hemorrhage uses

36 Difference b/w Oxytocin and Ergometrine
Character Tetanic contraction ; doesn't resemble normal physiological contractions Resembles normal physiological contractions Contractions Only in postpartum hemorrhage To induce &augment labor. *Post partum hemorrhage Uses Moderate onset Long duration of action Rapid onset Shorter duration of action Onset and Duration

37 Drugs relax uterine muscles & inhibit uterine contractions
TOCOLYTIC DRUGS Drugs relax uterine muscles & inhibit uterine contractions

38 Tocolytic Drugs Uses To arrest premature labor Delay delivery for 48 hrs , this time can be used to administer glucocorticoids ( Injection betamethasone) to mother for maturation of the fetal lung

39 Classification of tocolytic drugs
B2 selective stimulants ( Ritodrine, salbutamol) Oxytocic Antagonist Atosiban Other dugs Magnesium sulphate Calcium channel blockers ( nifedipine) COX inhibitors ( indomethacin)

40 Ritodrine (β- adrenoceptor agonist)
Mechanism of action Bind to β-adrenoceptors , activate Adenylate cyclase , increase in the level of cAMP reducing intracellular calcium level.

41 Side effects: Anxiety, Restlessness, Headache Pulmonary edema Flushing Sweating Tachycardia (high dose) Hypotension Hyperglycemia

42 ( Atosiban ) Oxytocic Antagonist
Antagonizes the effects of oxytocin at its receptors Used as tocolytic in premature labor Given by IV infusion for 48 hrs

Causes relaxation of myometrium Markedly inhibits the amplitude of spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions

44 Adverse effects Headache, dizziness Hypotension Flushing Ankle edema

45 COX inhibitors The depletion of prostaglandins prevents stimulation of uterus NSAID,s e.g. Indomethacin Aspirin Ibuprofen

46 Adverse effects ulceration premature closure of ductus arterious.


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