Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: WWI The spark that leads to war.... How did ethnic tensions in the Balkans spark a political assassination? How did conflict between Austria-Hungary."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 4: WWI The spark that leads to war...
How did ethnic tensions in the Balkans spark a political assassination? How did conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia widen? How do historians view the outbreak of World War I?
Assassination in Sarajevo In 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announced he would visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
At the time, Bosnia was under the rule of Austria- Hungary. But it was also the home of many Serbs and other Slavs.
News of the royal visit angered many Serbian nationalists. They viewed Austrians as foreign oppressors. The date chosen for the archduke’s visit was a significant date in Serbian history. On that date in 1389, Serbia had been conquered by the Ottoman empire. On the same date in 1912, Serbia had freed itself from Turkish rule.
Members of a Serbian terrorist group (THE BLACK HAND) assassinated the Archduke and his wife.assassinated
How did this conflict widen?? After the assassination of the archduke, Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum, or final set of demands. Serbia agreed to most, but not all, of the terms of Austria’s ultimatum. As a result, Austria declared war on Serbia.
Germany offered full support to Austria-Hungary. Instead of urging restraint, the kaiser (German title meaning “emperor”) gave Austria a “blank check.” Serbia sought help from Russia, the champion of Slavic nations. When Austria refused to soften its demands, Russia began to mobilize (to make ready for war).
Germany responded by declaring war on Russia. Russia appealed to its ally France. France offered full support to Russia, prompting Germany to declare war on France.
Italy and Great Britain remained uncommitted at first. Italy chose to remain neutral for the time being. NEUTRALITY is a policy of supporting neither side in a war. Great Britain had to decide whether or not to support its ally, France. Germany’s war plans suddenly made the decision easier
THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN: Years earlier General Alfred von Schlieffen had come up with a plan of attack against France. It was designed to avoid a “two-front” war (France in the west and Russia in the east). Schlieffen reasoned that Russia would be slow to mobilize and so the plan was to attack France quickly, and fight Russia later.
The Schlieffen plan called for German troops to march through Belgium. Great Britain had signed a treaty guaranteeing Belgian neutrality. THUS—Great Britain declared war on Germany.plan
The Historians’ View How could an assassination lead to all-out war in just a few weeks? Today, most historians agree that all parties must share blame. Each of the great powers believed that its cause was just. Once the machinery of war was set in motion, it seemed impossible to stop. Although leaders made the decisions, most people on both sides were equally committed to military action.
WWI as a Snowball Fight
Imagine that a little kid threw a snowball at a bully one day. What do you think would happen?
The bully would “go after” the kid. Exactly.
Now, let’s say that the little kid had a big brother. What do you think the big brother would do?
Stand up for the little kid. Great. In this situation, the little kid is Serbia, the bully is Austria- Hungary and the big brother is Russia.
BIG BROTHER BULLY LITTLE KID
Now, let’s say the initial bully had a bigger friend who was also a bully. What do you think that friend would do?
Go after the big brother (Russia). Right, the bigger bully is Germany. The other BULLY
Now, let’s say that the bigger bully (Germany) had hurt another kid the previous week. This kid had his glasses broken and is still mad at the bigger bully. He sees the bully get into the fight, what would he do do?
Join up with Russia. That person is France. “Bullied” joins up with Russia
Now, let’s say that on the way to getting this new kid, the big bully throws a snowball at another little kid in the playground who’s in the way. But this little kid has a big brother too. What do you think would happen? They would join in.
The little kid is Belgium and his big brother is Great Britain. Another Big Brother Belgium: another “bullied kid”