Presentation on theme: "Topic 6: word meaning Introduction to Semantics. Morpheme The minimal unit of meaning A smallest linguistic form in which its sound and meaning cannot."— Presentation transcript:
Zero derivation No morphological process occurs Cook-cook
Kinds of derivation Inchoative Causative Resultative
inchoative Denotes the beginning, or coming into existence, of some state. Soft, soften
causative Denotes an action which causes something to happen Open (a door)
resultative Denotes a state resulting from some action Broken –break Frozen –freeze
derivational process STATE Inchoative PROCESS Causative ACTION Resultative STATE Words denoting STATE Words denoting PROCESS Words denoting ACTION Words denoting STATE
derivational process: example STATE Inchoative PROCESS Causative ACTION Resultative STATE Straight (adj) denoting STATE Straighten (intrans. V) denoting PROCESS Straighten (trans. V) denoting ACTION Straightened (passive participle as adj) denoting STATE
‘gaps’ in the process STATE Inchoative PROCESS Causative ACTION Resultative STATE Noble (adj) ? Ennoble (trans. V) Ennobled (passive participle as adj)
The productivity of derivational processes A derivational process is completely productive if it can be used to produce an existing derived word from EVERY appropriate source word. Doubtful whether any derivational process is actually completely productive.
Some are very more productive than others Which is more productive? Adverbial –ly Happy-happily; quick-quickly Female –ess Actor-actress; prince-princess
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