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The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers

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1 The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers
Chapter 4 The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

2 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. These atoms form chemical bonds that follow the laws of nature. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

3 The Simple Carbohydrates
Monosaccharrides are single sugars (most are hexoses). Glucose serves as the essential energy source, and is commonly known as blood sugar or dextrose. Fructose is the sweetest, occurs naturally in honey and fruits, and is added to many foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. Galactose rarely occurs naturally as a single sugar. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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6 The Simple Carbohydrates
Disaccharides are pairs of monosaccharides, one of which is always glucose Condensation reactions link monosaccharides together. Hydrolysis reactions split molecules and commonly occur during digestion. Maltose consists of two glucose units. It is produced during the germination of seeds and fermentation. Sucrose is fructose and glucose combined. It is refined from sugarcane and sugar beets, tastes sweet, and is readily available. Lactose is galactose and glucose combined. It is found in milk and milk products. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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8 The Complex Carbohydrates
Few (oligosaccharides) or many (polysaccharides) glucose units bound/linked together in straight or branched chains. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

9 The Complex Carbohydrates
Glycogen Storage form of glucose in the body Provides a rapid release of energy when needed Starches Storage form of glucose in plants Found in grains, tubers, and legumes © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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11 Glycogen Starch (amylopectin) Starch (amylose)
A glycogen molecule contains hundreds of glucose units in highly branched chains. Each new glycogen molecule needs a special protein for the attachment of the first glucose (shown here in red). Figure 4.8: Glycogen and Starch Molecules Compared (Small Segments). Notice the more highly branched the structure, the greater the number of ends from which glucose can be released. (These units would have to be magnified millions of times to appear at the size shown in this figure. For details of the chemical structures, see Appendix C.) A starch molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains (amylopectin) or unbranched chains (amylose). Stepped Art Fig. 4-8, p. 106

12 The Complex Carbohydrates
Dietary fibers provide structure in plants, are very diverse, and cannot be broken down by human enzymes. Soluble fibers are viscous and can be digested by intestinal bacteria (this property is also known as fermentability). These fibers are found in fruits and vegetables. Insoluble fibers are nonviscous and are not digested by intestinal bacteria. These fibers are found in grains and vegetables. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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14 The Complex Carbohydrates
Fiber Sources Dietary fibers are found in plant foods. Functional fibers are health-benefiting fibers that are added to foods or supplements. Total fiber considers both dietary and functional fibers. Resistant starches escape digestion and are found in legumes, raw potatoes and unripe bananas. Phytic acid or phytate has a close association with fiber and binds some minerals. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

15 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Digestion In the mouth, the salivary enzyme amylase begins to hydrolyze starch into short polysaccharides and maltose. In the stomach, acid continues to hydrolyze starch while fiber delays gastric emptying and provides a feeling of fullness (satiety). © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

16 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Digestion In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase among other enzymes (maltase, sucrase, and lactase) hydrolyzes starches to disaccharides and monosaccharides. In the large intestine, fibers remain and attract water, soften stools and ferment. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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18 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate Absorption Primarily takes place in the small intestine Glucose and galactose are absorbed by active transport. Fructose is absorbed by facilitated diffusion. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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20 In the liver, galactose and fructose are converted to glucose.
Monosaccharides, the end products of carbohydrate digestion, enter the capillaries of the intestinal villi. Small intestine In the liver, galactose and fructose are converted to glucose. Figure 4.11: Absorption of Monosaccharides. Monosaccharides travel to the liver via the portal vein. Stepped Art Fig. 4-11, p. 110

21 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Lactose Intolerance Symptoms include bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Causes include lactase deficiency due to a natural decrease that occurs with aging or damaged intestinal villi. Prevalence Lowest in Scandinavians and northern Europeans Highest in Southeast Asians and native North Americans © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

22 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Lactose Intolerance - Dietary Changes Increase consumption of milk products gradually. Mix dairy with other foods. Spread dairy intake throughout the day. Use of acidophilus milk, yogurt, and kefir (fermented products) Use of enzymes Individualization of diets Must be careful that vitamin and mineral deficiencies do not develop © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

23 Glucose in the Body A Preview of Carbohydrate Metabolism
The body stores glucose as glycogen in liver and muscle cells. The body uses glucose for energy if glycogen stores are available. If glycogen stores are depleted, the body makes glucose from protein. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of protein to glucose. Protein-sparing action is having adequate carbohydrate in the diet to prevent the breakdown of protein for energy. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

24 Glucose in the Body A Preview of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Making ketone bodies from fat fragments The accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood is called ketosis. Ketosis upsets the acid-base balance in the body. The body can use glucose to make body fat when carbohydrates are consumed excessively. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

25 Glucose in the Body The Constancy of Blood Glucose
Maintaining Glucose Homeostasis Low blood glucose may cause dizziness and weakness. High blood glucose may cause fatigue. Extreme fluctuations can be fatal. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

26 Glucose in the Body The Constancy of Blood Glucose
The Regulating Hormones Insulin moves glucose into the cells and helps to lower blood sugar levels. Glucagon brings glucose out of storage and raises blood sugar levels. Epinephrine acts quickly to bring glucose out of storage during times of stress. Balance glucose within the normal range by eating balanced meals regularly with adequate complex carbohydrates. Blood glucose can fall outside the normal range with hypoglycemia or diabetes. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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28 Glucose in the Body The Constancy of Blood Glucose Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is the less common type with no insulin produced by the body. Type 2 diabetes is the more common type where fat cells resist insulin. Prediabetes is blood glucose that is higher than normal but below the diagnosis of diabetes. Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose and can often be controlled by dietary changes. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

29 Glucose in the Body The Constancy of Blood Glucose
Glycemic response is how quickly the blood glucose rises and elicits an insulin response. Glycemic index classifies foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose. Glycemic load refers to a food’s glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrate the food contains. The benefit of the glycemic index is controversial. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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31 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Sugars
Sugar poses no major health problem except dental caries. Excessive intakes may displace nutrients and contribute to obesity. Consuming foods with added sugars should be limited. Naturally occurring sugars from fruits, vegetables and milk are acceptable sources. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

32 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Sugars
Health Effects of Sugars Foods with added sugars have sugars listed as a first ingredient. Nutrient deficiencies may develop from the intake of empty kcalories. Just because a substance is natural does not mean it is nutritious. (Example: honey) Dental caries may be caused by bacteria residing in dental plaque and the length of time sugars have contact with the teeth. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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34 Pulp (blood vessels, nerves)
Enamel Crown Caries Dentin Gum Pulp (blood vessels, nerves) Bone Figure 4.14: Dental Caries. Dental caries begins when acid dissolves the enamel that covers the tooth. If not repaired, the decay may penetrate the dentin and spread into the pulp of the tooth, causing inflammation, abscess, and possible loss of the tooth. Root canal Nerve Blood vessel Stepped Art Fig. 4-14, p. 119

35 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Sugars
Controversies Surrounding Sugars Excessive sugar intake can contribute to the development of body fat. Sugar may be able to alter blood lipid levels and contribute to heart disease in some. There is no scientific evidence that sugar causes misbehavior in children and criminal behavior in adults. There is a theory that sugar increases serotonin levels, which can lead to cravings and addictions. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

36 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Sugars
The USDA Food Guide states that added sugars can be included in the diet as part of discretionary kcalories. Dietary Guidelines state to limit intake of foods and beverages that are high in added sugars. DRI suggest added sugars should contribute no more than 25% of a day’s total energy intake. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

37 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers
Health Effects of Starch and Fibers May be some protection from heart disease and stroke Soluble fibers bind with bile and thereby lower blood cholesterol levels. Fiber may also displace fat in the diet. Reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by decreasing glucose absorption Enhance the health of the GI tract which can then block the absorption of unwanted particles May protect against colon cancer by removing potential cancer-causing agents from the body © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

38 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers
Health Effects of Starch and Fibers Promote weight control because complex carbohydrates provide less fat and added sugar. Harmful effects of excessive fiber intake Displaces energy and nutrient-dense foods Abdominal discomfort and distention May interfere with nutrient absorption © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

39 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers
RDA for carbohydrate is 130 g per day, or 45-65% of energy intake. Daily Value is 300 grams per day. Dietary Guidelines encourage a variety of whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes daily. Healthy People 2010 recommends six servings of grains and five servings of fruits and vegetables. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

40 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers
Recommended Intakes of Fiber FDA recommends 25 grams for a 2,000-kcalorie diet. DRI at 14 g per 1000 kcalorie intake (28 grams for a 2,000 kcalorie diet) American Dietetic Association recommends g per day. World Health Organization suggests no more than 40 g per day. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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42 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers
From Guidelines to Groceries Grains – encourage whole grains Vegetables – starchy and nonstarchy vegetables differ in carbohydrate content Fruits – vary in water, fiber and sugar content Milks and Milk Products – contain carbohydrate; cheese is low Meat and Meat Alternates – meats are low but nuts and legumes have some carbohydrate Food labels list grams of carbohydrate, fiber and sugar; starch grams can be calculated. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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44 Alternatives to Sugar © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

45 Artificial Sweeteners
Also called nonnutritive sweeteners Saccharin Used primarily in soft drinks and as a tabletop sweetener Rapidly excreted in the urine Does not accumulate in the body Has been removed from list of cancer-causing substances © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

46 Artificial Sweeteners
Aspartame General purpose sweetener Warning about phenylalanine for those with PKU Controversial finding that aspartame may have caused cancer in rats Excessive intake should be avoided by those with epilepsy © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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48 Methyl group hydrolyzed
Aspartic acid Phenylalanine Methyl group hydrolyzed Methanol Oxidized Formaldehyde Figure H4.2: Metabolism of Aspartame. Oxidized Carbon dioxide Stepped Art Fig. H4-2, p. 134

49 Artificial Sweeteners
Acesulfame-K (acesulfame potassium) Research confirms safety © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

50 Artificial Sweeteners
Sucralose Made from sugar Passes through digestive tract Neotame Most recent on the market Very sweet Phenylalanine not an issue © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

51 Artificial Sweeteners
Tagatose Used for foods and beverages Provides less kcalories than sugar High doses can cause flatulence and loose stools. Alitame and Cyclamate Pending FDA approval Approved in other countries © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

52 Artificial Sweeteners
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is the level of consumption, maintained every day and still safe by a wide margin. Moderation and variety are still recommended. Artificial Sweeteners and Weight Control Much research still being done Using artificial sweeteners will not automatically reduce energy intake. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

53 Stevia – An Herbal Alternative
Lacks research Classified as a dietary supplement Not required to have testing and FDA approval © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

54 Sugar Replacers Also called nutritive sweeteners, sugar alcohols, and polyols Maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, and lactitol Absorbed more slowly and metabolized differently in the body Low glycemic response Side effects include GI discomfort © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth

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