11 Glycogen Starch (amylopectin) Starch (amylose) A glycogen molecule contains hundreds of glucose units in highly branched chains. Each new glycogen molecule needs a special protein for the attachment of the first glucose (shown here in red).Figure 4.8: Glycogen and Starch Molecules Compared (Small Segments).Notice the more highly branched the structure, the greater the number of ends from which glucose can be released. (These units would have to be magnified millions of times to appear at the size shown in this figure. For details of the chemical structures, see Appendix C.)A starch molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains (amylopectin) or unbranched chains (amylose).Stepped ArtFig. 4-8, p. 106
20 In the liver, galactose and fructose are converted to glucose. Monosaccharides, the end products of carbohydrate digestion, enter the capillaries of the intestinal villi.Small intestineIn the liver, galactose and fructose are converted to glucose.Figure 4.11: Absorption of Monosaccharides.Monosaccharides travel to the liver via the portal vein.Stepped ArtFig. 4-11, p. 110
34 Pulp (blood vessels, nerves) EnamelCrownCariesDentinGumPulp (blood vessels, nerves)BoneFigure 4.14: Dental Caries.Dental caries begins when acid dissolves the enamel that covers the tooth. If not repaired, the decay may penetrate the dentin and spread into the pulp of the tooth, causing inflammation, abscess, and possible loss of the tooth.Root canalNerveBlood vesselStepped ArtFig. 4-14, p. 119
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