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MEAL PLANNING & PREPARATION © PDST Home Economics.

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Presentation on theme: "MEAL PLANNING & PREPARATION © PDST Home Economics."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEAL PLANNING & PREPARATION © PDST Home Economics

2 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN PLANNING A MEAL Nutrition- balanced meal. Nutrition- balanced meal. Follow healthy eating guidelines. Follow healthy eating guidelines. Requirements of age- group being served. Requirements of age- group being served. Special diets e.g. coeliac. Special diets e.g. coeliac. Variety- tastes, colour, texture, cooking methods. Variety- tastes, colour, texture, cooking methods. Time available. Time available. Knowledge & skill. Knowledge & skill. Budget. Budget. Availability of ingredients. Availability of ingredients. Availability of equipment. Availability of equipment.

3 CHANGES THAT HAPPEN DURING FOOD PREPARATION Physical Changes Increase in size e.g. soaking dried food. Increase in size e.g. soaking dried food. Thickening e.g. whipping cream. Thickening e.g. whipping cream. Loss of nutritive value e.g. water - soluble vitamins dissolve into water. Loss of nutritive value e.g. water - soluble vitamins dissolve into water. Tenderising e.g. meat is tenderised by beating, mincing. Tenderising e.g. meat is tenderised by beating, mincing. Chemical changes Colour change e.g. enzymatic browning. Colour change e.g. enzymatic browning. Nutrient loss e.g. enzyme oxidase destroys vitamin C. Nutrient loss e.g. enzyme oxidase destroys vitamin C. Tenderising e.g. proteolytic enzymes tenderise meat fibres. Tenderising e.g. proteolytic enzymes tenderise meat fibres. Increase in size e.g. yeast dough expands as enzymes make CO 2. Increase in size e.g. yeast dough expands as enzymes make CO 2.

4 CHANGES THAT HAPPEN DURING COOKING OF FOOD Physical Changes Texture changes e.g. cell walls soften in vegetables. Texture changes e.g. cell walls soften in vegetables. Bacteria killed. Bacteria killed. Nutrient loss e.g. vitamins & minerals dissolve into cooking liquid. Nutrient loss e.g. vitamins & minerals dissolve into cooking liquid. Food solidifies e.g. egg protein coagulates. Food solidifies e.g. egg protein coagulates. Food thickens e.g. gelatinisation of starch. Food thickens e.g. gelatinisation of starch. Shrinkage - protein coagulates & shrinks e.g. meat. Shrinkage - protein coagulates & shrinks e.g. meat. Chemical Changes Maillard reaction – when amino acids & carbohydrates are heated together, the food turns brown. Maillard reaction – when amino acids & carbohydrates are heated together, the food turns brown. Caramelisation - sugar heated above dissolving point turns brown e.g. toffee. Caramelisation - sugar heated above dissolving point turns brown e.g. toffee. Dextrinisation - long starch chains break into shorter chains called dextrins & a brown colour develops e.g. toasting bread. Dextrinisation - long starch chains break into shorter chains called dextrins & a brown colour develops e.g. toasting bread.

5 REASONS FOR COOKING FOOD To destroy pathogenic bacteria making food safer. To destroy pathogenic bacteria making food safer. To destroy enzymes and prevent food spoilage. To destroy enzymes and prevent food spoilage. To make food palatable & digestible e.g. starchy foods like potatoes. To make food palatable & digestible e.g. starchy foods like potatoes. To improve appearance e.g. meat. To improve appearance e.g. meat. To develop flavour e.g. meat extractives released. To develop flavour e.g. meat extractives released. To stimulate digestive juices - sight & smells of cooked food. To stimulate digestive juices - sight & smells of cooked food. To destroy natural toxins e.g. red kidney beans. To destroy natural toxins e.g. red kidney beans. To combine ingredients and create new flavours. To combine ingredients and create new flavours.

6 UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF COOKING FOOD Conduction - Transfer of heat from one molecule to another by vibration of molecules. E.g. heat passing from the cooker hob through the base of the saucepan. Conduction - Transfer of heat from one molecule to another by vibration of molecules. E.g. heat passing from the cooker hob through the base of the saucepan. Convection - Molecules near heat source become hot, less dense and rise up. This allows cold molecules to take their place. This sets up convection currents and heat is spread e.g. simmering stews. Convection - Molecules near heat source become hot, less dense and rise up. This allows cold molecules to take their place. This sets up convection currents and heat is spread e.g. simmering stews. Radiation - Heat passes in straight rays, from the source, to the first solid object they reach, without heating air in between e.g. grilling burgers. Radiation - Heat passes in straight rays, from the source, to the first solid object they reach, without heating air in between e.g. grilling burgers. Most cooking methods involve one or more of these principles. Most cooking methods involve one or more of these principles.

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8 METHODS OF COOKING Moist Methods: Boiling, Simmering, Poaching, Stewing, Braising, Steaming, Pressure cooking. Moist Methods: Boiling, Simmering, Poaching, Stewing, Braising, Steaming, Pressure cooking. Dry Methods: Baking, Grilling, Roasting, Barbecuing. Dry Methods: Baking, Grilling, Roasting, Barbecuing. Frying: Dry, Shallow, Deep -fat, Stir. Frying: Dry, Shallow, Deep -fat, Stir. Microwave cooking. Microwave cooking.

9 CHOOSING A COOKING METHOD Ingredients available e.g. stewing beef or sirloin steak. Ingredients available e.g. stewing beef or sirloin steak. Experience of cook. Experience of cook. Time available. Time available. Equipment available. Equipment available. Desired result e.g. crispy, brown, moist. Desired result e.g. crispy, brown, moist. Fuel economy. Fuel economy. Retention of nutrients. Retention of nutrients.

10 BOILING / SIMMERING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking by convection & conduction in 100ºC in covered saucepan on the hob. Cooking by convection & conduction in 100ºC in covered saucepan on the hob. Simmering - 90 ºC Simmering - 90 ºC 100 all times. 100 all times. Vegetables - small amount of liquid. Vegetables - small amount of liquid. Use cooking liquid – soups, sauces. Use cooking liquid – soups, sauces. Cook food for shortest possible time. Cook food for shortest possible time. Meat - bacon, mutton. Meat - bacon, mutton. Eggs. Eggs. Pasta. Pasta. Rice. Rice. Veg. Veg. Needs little attention. Needs little attention. Clean. Clean. Food stays moist. Food stays moist. Digestible. Digestible. Less greasy. Less greasy. Little preparation. Little preparation. Little flavour added. Little flavour added. Loss of nutrients. Loss of nutrients. Lacks texture. Lacks texture.

11 POACHING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking by convection & conduction in 85ºC in covered container on hob or in oven. Cooking by convection & conduction in 85ºC in covered container on hob or in oven. 85 all times. 85 all times. Water barely moving, not bubbling. Water barely moving, not bubbling. Use for delicate foods that need gentle cooking. Use for delicate foods that need gentle cooking. Fish. Fish. De- shelled eggs. De- shelled eggs. Fruit. Fruit. Clean. Clean. Food stays moist. Food stays moist. Digestible. Digestible. Less greasy. Less greasy. Little flavour added. Little flavour added. Loss of nutrients. Loss of nutrients. Lacks texture. Lacks texture. Slow. Slow. Needs attention. Needs attention.

12 BRAISING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking meat in a small amount of stock, on a layer of vegetables (mirepoix). Meat is in a covered saucepan on the hob. Cooking meat in a small amount of stock, on a layer of vegetables (mirepoix). Meat is in a covered saucepan on the hob. Combination of steaming and stewing. Combination of steaming and stewing. Use only enough stock to cover vegetables. Use only enough stock to cover vegetables. Food can be browned under grill before serving. Food can be browned under grill before serving. Root vegetables Root vegetables Chicken. Chicken. Offal. Offal. Tougher cuts of meat. Tougher cuts of meat. Little attention needed. Little attention needed. Food stays moist. Food stays moist. Complete meal in one pot – saves fuel & wash-up. Complete meal in one pot – saves fuel & wash-up. Less nutrient loss. Less nutrient loss. Digestible. Digestible. A lot of prep. A lot of prep. Slow. Slow. Lacks texture. Lacks texture.

13 STEWING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Slowly cooking food in a little liquid, by conduction & convection, using gentle heat (80 ºC - 90 ºC), in a covered container, on hob or in oven. Slowly cooking food in a little liquid, by conduction & convection, using gentle heat (80 ºC - 90 ºC), in a covered container, on hob or in oven. Bring to boil & then reduce heat. Bring to boil & then reduce heat. Temperature of 80 ºC -90 ºC. Temperature of 80 ºC -90 ºC. Keep covered. Keep covered. Use pressure cooker to reduce time. Use pressure cooker to reduce time. Tough cuts of meat/fish. Tough cuts of meat/fish. Veg. Veg. Fruit Fruit Little attention needed. Little attention needed. Food stays moist. Food stays moist. Complete meal in one pot – saves fuel & wash-up. Complete meal in one pot – saves fuel & wash-up. Less nutrient loss. Less nutrient loss. Digestible. Digestible. A lot of prep. A lot of prep. Slow. Slow. Lacks texture Lacks texture

14 STEAMING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking food slowly in steam rising from boiling water. Cooking food slowly in steam rising from boiling water. Food can be steamed: Food can be steamed: a. Between two plates. a. Between two plates. b. In a covered bowl in a saucepan of boiling water. b. In a covered bowl in a saucepan of boiling water. c. In a steamer over boiling water. c. In a steamer over boiling water. d. On a trivet in a pressure cooker. d. On a trivet in a pressure cooker. A tightly fitting lid prevents evaporation. A tightly fitting lid prevents evaporation. Water boiling before & during cooking. Water boiling before & during cooking. Food must not touch liquid. Food must not touch liquid. Thin pieces of chicken and fish. Thin pieces of chicken and fish. Steamed puddings, e.g. canary, Christmas, chocolate. Steamed puddings, e.g. canary, Christmas, chocolate. Vegetables. Vegetables. No loss of nutrients. No loss of nutrients. Clean. Clean. Food stays moist. Food stays moist. Digestible. Digestible. Not greasy. Not greasy. Little flavour added. Little flavour added. Lacks texture. Lacks texture. Slow. Slow. Not suitable for large pieces of food. Not suitable for large pieces of food.

15 BAKING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Dry method of cooking food by convection currents in the oven. Dry method of cooking food by convection currents in the oven. Pre-heat oven. Pre-heat oven. Steam made in the oven stops food drying, tinfoil & greaseproof paper also used. Steam made in the oven stops food drying, tinfoil & greaseproof paper also used. Avoid opening oven door. Avoid opening oven door. Bread. Cakes. Biscuits. Pastries. Bread. Cakes. Biscuits. Pastries. Vegetables e.g. potatoes, Vegetables e.g. potatoes, tomatoes, peppers. Fruit e.g. Apples. Fruit e.g. Apples. Puddings, apple crumble. Puddings, apple crumble. Attractive appearance. Attractive appearance. Doesn’t add fat. Doesn’t add fat. Little loss of nutrients. Little loss of nutrients. Dries food. Dries food.

16 GRILLING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Fast method of cooking food by radiant heat under a grill. Fast method of cooking food by radiant heat under a grill. Pre-heat grill. Pre-heat grill. Seal surface of the food with high heat, preventing nutrient loss. Seal surface of the food with high heat, preventing nutrient loss. Use tongs to turn food. Use tongs to turn food. Thin pieces of food only. Thin pieces of food only. Don’t salt food before grilling. Don’t salt food before grilling. Oil grill grid to prevent sticking. Oil grill grid to prevent sticking. Meat - chops, steaks, burgers, rashers. Meat - chops, steaks, burgers, rashers. Vegetables - tomatoes. Vegetables - tomatoes. Fish fillets. Fish fillets. Fast. Fast. Little loss of nutrients. Little loss of nutrients. Reduces fat content. Reduces fat content. Attractive appearance & taste. Attractive appearance & taste. Constant attention needed. Constant attention needed. Dries food. Dries food. Spatters grease. Spatters grease. Unsuitable for tough or thick cuts of meat. Unsuitable for tough or thick cuts of meat.

17 BARBECUING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking food by radiant heat on a grid over glowing charcoal. Cooking food by radiant heat on a grid over glowing charcoal. Pre-heat barbecue. Pre-heat barbecue. Seal surface with high heat, preventing nutrient loss. Seal surface with high heat, preventing nutrient loss. Use tongs to turn food. Use tongs to turn food. Thin pieces of food only. Thin pieces of food only. Don’t salt food before barbecuing. Don’t salt food before barbecuing. Oil barbecue grid to prevent sticking. Oil barbecue grid to prevent sticking. Meat, chops, steaks, burgers, rashers. Meat, chops, steaks, burgers, rashers. Vegetables e.g.tomatoes Vegetables e.g.tomatoes Fish fillets. Fish fillets. Fast Fast Little loss of nutrients. Little loss of nutrients. Reduces fat content. Reduces fat content. Attractive appearance & taste. Attractive appearance & taste. Constant attention. Constant attention. Dries food. Dries food. Spatters grease. Spatters grease.

18 ROASTING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Cooking food in a little fat in (a) a roasting tin in the oven, (b) a saucepan on the hob (pot roasting), (c) on a spit, under a grill or in an oven (spit roasting). Cooking food in a little fat in (a) a roasting tin in the oven, (b) a saucepan on the hob (pot roasting), (c) on a spit, under a grill or in an oven (spit roasting). Pre-heat oven. Pre-heat oven. Cooking time depends on weight. Cooking time depends on weight. Baste every 30 minutes. Baste every 30 minutes. Use cooking juices for gravy. Use cooking juices for gravy. Quick roasting (tender cuts) - 230ºC for 20 mins, 190 ºC for remainder. Quick roasting (tender cuts) - 230ºC for 20 mins, 190 ºC for remainder. Slow Roasting (less tender cuts) ºC for all the cooking time. Slow Roasting (less tender cuts) ºC for all the cooking time. Meat – Meat –beef,lamb,pork. Poultry. Poultry. Vegetables e.g. potatoes Vegetables e.g. potatoes Vegetables & meat cooked together. Vegetables & meat cooked together. Cooking liquid used as gravy. Cooking liquid used as gravy. Attractive appearance & taste. Attractive appearance & taste. Not much prep. Not much prep. Spatters grease. Spatters grease. Not suitable for tough cuts. Not suitable for tough cuts. Greasy. Greasy. Shrinkage occurs. Shrinkage occurs. Adds fat. Adds fat.

19 FRYING DefinitionGuidelinesSuitable foods Advantages & Disadvantages Dry – cooking food by conduction in frying pan on the hob. Shallow – cooking food in hot fat. Deep – cooking food immersed in hot fat. Pre-heat oil. Pre-heat oil. Use tongs for turning. Use tongs for turning. Drain before serving. Drain before serving. Coating food: Protects surface. Protects surface. Texture. Texture. Flavour. Flavour. Appearance. Appearance. Meat - thin pieces e.g. rashers, chops, burgers, sausages. Meat - thin pieces e.g. rashers, chops, burgers, sausages. Fish - thin pieces e.g. steaks, cutlets, fillets. Fish - thin pieces e.g. steaks, cutlets, fillets. Eggs. Eggs. Vegetables. Vegetables. Doughnuts. Doughnuts. Quick. Quick. Attractive taste & appearance. Attractive taste & appearance. Constant attention. Constant attention. Spatters grease. Spatters grease. Not suitable for tough meats or large cuts. Not suitable for tough meats or large cuts. Not suitable when cooking for large numbers. Not suitable when cooking for large numbers. Greasy. Greasy. Indigestible Indigestible

20 PRESSURE COOKING Definition & principle StructureGuidelinesSuitable foods Fast moist method of cooking high temps. in a pressure cooker. Fast moist method of cooking high temps. in a pressure cooker. Used for boiling, stewing & steaming. Used for boiling, stewing & steaming. Water under increased pressure higher temp. Pressure increased inside pressure cooker by not letting steam escape. As a result, water 122ºC. Food cooks in 1/3 of normal time. Water under increased pressure higher temp. Pressure increased inside pressure cooker by not letting steam escape. As a result, water 122ºC. Food cooks in 1/3 of normal time. Heavy gauge saucepan. Locking lid. Heavy gauge saucepan. Locking lid. Rubber gasket seals lid. Rubber gasket seals lid. Trivet. Trivet. Separator basket. Separator basket. Vent on lid. Vent on lid. Safety valve. Safety valve. Follow instructions. Follow instructions. Never overfill. Never overfill. Build up steam before applying weight. Build up steam before applying weight. Time very accurately. Time very accurately. Reduce pressure before opening- Reduce pressure before opening- (a) Stand for 15 room temp. (a) Stand for 15 room temp. (b) Under cold running water. (b) Under cold running water. Stocks & soups. Stocks & soups. Stews. Stews. Vegetables e.g. potatoes. Vegetables e.g. potatoes. Jam. Jam. Christmas pudding. Christmas pudding. Bottling Bottling

21 MICROWAVE PrincipleGuidelinesSuitable dishes Electro- magnetic waves penetrate the food to a certain depth and cause the molecules to vibrate very rapidly. This causes intense heat. The remainder of the food cooks by conduction. Electro- magnetic waves penetrate the food to a certain depth and cause the molecules to vibrate very rapidly. This causes intense heat. The remainder of the food cooks by conduction. Time carefully. Time carefully. Timing is affected by: Timing is affected by:Composition.Thickness.Density. Temperature at the start. Amount of food. Cover food, keep moist, cook faster. Cover food, keep moist, cook faster. Turn or stir. Turn or stir. Pierce skins. Pierce skins. Arrange in circle, thickest bit outward. Arrange in circle, thickest bit outward. No metal or foil. No metal or foil. Allow standing time. Allow standing time. Defrosting. Defrosting. Reheating. Reheating. Cooking. Cooking. Melting chocolate. Melting chocolate. Heating liquid. Heating liquid. Unsuitable dishes Unsuitable dishes Pastry. Pastry. Meringue. Meringue.

22 EFFECTS OF COOKING ON FOOD Moist methods Loss of vitamins and minerals into cooking liquid. Loss of vitamins and minerals into cooking liquid. Cellulose softens. Cellulose softens. Collagen changes to gelatine. Collagen changes to gelatine. Flavours mix and develop. Flavours mix and develop. Dry Methods Vitamins B & C lost due to high temperatures. Vitamins B & C lost due to high temperatures. Grilling causes loss of fat. Grilling causes loss of fat. Shrinkage - meat juices squeezed out - loss of nutrients. Shrinkage - meat juices squeezed out - loss of nutrients. Food becomes crispy. Food becomes crispy. Loss of fat causes loss of flavour. Loss of fat causes loss of flavour. Cooking smells are developed. Cooking smells are developed.

23 EFFECTS OF COOKING ON FOOD Frying Methods Generally adds fat. Generally adds fat. Coating adds nutrients. Coating adds nutrients. Food becomes greasier and harder to digest. Food becomes greasier and harder to digest. Adds flavour. Adds flavour. Microwave Cooking Quick cooking helps retain nutrients. Quick cooking helps retain nutrients. Food stays soft and moist. Food stays soft and moist. Food does not brown unless the microwave has a grill also. Food does not brown unless the microwave has a grill also.


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