Presentation on theme: "Compiled by Bernard Kang"— Presentation transcript:
1Compiled by Bernard Kang Oral CommunicationsP.E.A.RPronunciationExpressivenessArticulation andRhythm and FluencyCompiled by Bernard Kangor
2PronunciationTests on the accuracy of saying a word using particular sounds.Students are usually tested on the following:Ability to pronounce words with multiple syllablesAbility to pronounce uncommon wordsAbility to pronounce words with ‘th’ in themAbility to pronounce commonly mispronounced words
3Examples from TYS 2009 Day 1 Memorabilia Ornamental Opportunity AuthenticBustlingMarketVastnessThought
4PronunciationIn most situations, a student should be able to use phonetics to decipher the pronunciation, however, there will be cases where it is not so straightforward.Example:Eg. Names – Samuel, Peter, JaneWhat about Chloe? Michaela? Charlotte?Examples from TYS:Barbara (2008 Day2)Vikram (2008 Day 6)You will NOT be penalised for pronouncing names of people incorrectly so why is this important?
5PronunciationThe same principle applies to words. Often, we are misled into inaccurate pronunciation of certain words because of their spelling. Students must be adequately exposed and trained to ensure that they are able to identify these words.Sometimes simple words are so commonly mispronounced by Singaporeans that we do not realise that they are incorrect.Example: Sword, Wednesday(Fun Fact: Do you know that Singapore is one of the few countries where we pronounce ‘flour’ as ‘flar’? )
6Let’s recapitulate (ree-kuh-pich-uh-leyt) : How do u pronounce these words? CalendarColleaguePotentialSwordExtraSecondPressureTicketWednesday
7More Commonly Mispronounced Words (ADD THEM TO YOUR LIST!) SG Pronunciation?LiaseLie-usSoftenSof-tenalbeit?
8More Commonly Mispronounced Words (ADD THEM TO YOUR LIST!) Correct PronunciationLiaseLee-ay-sSoftenSof-enalbeitAwl-bee-it
9More Commonly Mispronounced Words SG Pronunciation?gesturegas-turerepetitiverep-per-te-tiveItineraryItinerySubtleSub-tleGenuinejen-yoo-wine
10More Commonly Mispronounced Words Correct PronunciationgestureJes-cherrepetitivere-pet-i-tiveItineraryahy-tin-uh-rer-eeSubtlesuht-lGenuinejen-yoo-in
11More Commonly Mispronounced Words SG PronunciationDebtdebtDebrisDe-brisApparatusEr-pear-rey-tusAthleteAir-the-leteAbaloneAir-ber-lon
12More Commonly Mispronounced Words Correct PronunciationDebtdetDebrisduh-bree, dey-breeApparatusap-uh-rat-uhs, -rey-tuhsAthleteath-leetAbaloneab-uh-loh-nee
13CHALLENGE How do you pronounce… Giraffe? (TYS 2009 Day 1) What if it was a …Hippopotamus instead?
14Expressiveness: Dialogue – Feelings Pitch and Tone for Effect
15ExpressivenessExpressiveness is an important component in Oral Communication because it shows feelings and character. It also sets the tone of the atmosphere and setting.Dialogue – More often than not, there will be dialogue in your reading passage. As a result, you must be adequately prepared to express different kinds of feelings in the speaker.Pitch and tone for effect – Pitch and tone is how you vary your voice to suit the passage as you read it aloud.
16Group Work! Get into groups of six. In your groups, practice the different ways of saying the rhyme as indicated in the slide.
17RationaleDramatisation of verses is a good way to practice expressiveness. You would realise that the same verse can be read in different kinds of moods and feelings, thus sounding different under the different settings.
18Try this! HE’S HERE! HE’S HERE! SURPRISE! Birthday Party Somebody switch off the lights!Oh no, I’ve spilled the drinks!Move the presents out of the way.Everybody hide!You’re squashing me.I’ve lost my party hat.Who’s sitting on my toe?Ouch! Ouch!Sh… Sh…He’s opening the door…SURPRISE!
19ConclusionPronunciation – Students must be careful when reading the passage and note the words that they must pay special attention to during their preparation.Expressiveness – Students must learn to project feelings and how to vary their pitch and tone when reading the passageREMEMBER: THE KEY WORD IS PRACTICE!
20Task Students to refer to 2006 Day 1 in their Oral Communications TYS. Using a PENCIL, identify and underline the potential difficult areas which you would need to pay attention to in your reading (e.g. contractions, past tense).Take about 3 minutes to read through the passage aloud to yourself, paying close attention to the areas which you have identified.In pairs, take turns to read to each other. The listener’s job is to judge if the reader has read the passage accurately.Teachers can get students who have read well to read to the class.
21Reading Aloud-Reminders There are SEVEN main things oral candidates must look out for in reading passages: (COPY THIS DOWN)TensesPlural FormsEnd consonantsPunctuation (Passage)Punctuation (Dialogue)Contractions in grammar‘Th’ sounds