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Chapter 56 Dermatologic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 56 Dermatologic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 56 Dermatologic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2  Largest organ of the body  Two layers  Dermis  Epidermis Skin Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.2

3  Protective barrier for the internal organs  Senses changes in temperature, pressure, or pain  Regulates body temperature  Excretes fluid and electrolytes  Stores fat  Synthesizes vitamin D  Provides a site for drug absorption Functions of the Skin Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.3

4 4

5  Antimicrobial drugs  Antibacterial drugs  Antifungal drugs  Antiviral drugs  Antiinflammatory drugs  Antineoplastic drugs  Antipruritic drugs (for itching)  Burn drugs Topical Dermatologic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.5

6  Emollients (soften skin)  Keratolytics (cause softening and peeling of the stratum corneum)  Local anesthetics  Topical vasodilators  Débriding drugs (promote wound healing)  Sunscreens Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.6

7  Antibacterial drugs  Antifungal drugs  Antiviral drugs Topical Antimicrobial Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.7

8  Most common bacteria are Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus  Folliculitis  Impetigo  Furuncles  Carbuncles  Cellulitis  Pustules  Vesicles  Papules Antibacterial Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.8

9  Most common drugs  bacitracin  neomycin  polymyxin  neomycin and polymyxin B (Neosporin)  mupirocin (Bactroban) Antibacterial Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.9

10  mupirocin (Bactroban)  Used topically for Staph and Strep impetigo  Intranasal form for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)  Available by prescription Antibacterial Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.10

11  silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)  Topical antiinfective  Used to prevent or treat infection at the site of second- and third-degree burns  Adverse effects: pain, burning, and itching  Do not use in patients who are allergic to sulfonamide drugs Antibacterial Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.11

12 Classroom Response Question The nurse is assessing a patient who has been diagnosed with MRSA on the right arm. The nurse anticipates use of which medication to treat the MRSA? A. bacitracin B. neomycin C. polymyxin B D. mupirocin (Bactroban) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.12

13  Acne is caused by Propionibacterium acnes  Drugs used to treat acne  benzoyl peroxide  erythromycin  tetracycline  isotretinoin (Amnesteem)  clindamycin (Cleocin T)  tretinoin (Renova, Retin-A)  Oral contraceptives (for female patients with acne) Antiacne Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.13

14  benzoyl peroxide  Causes death of the anaerobic P. acnes bacteria by slowly releasing oxygen  Antibacterial, antiseptic, drying, and keratolytic actions  Keratolytic: softens scales and loosens the outer layer of the skin  May cause peeling skin, redness, or sensation of warmth  Produces improvement in 4 to 6 weeks Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.14

15  clindamycin (Cleocin T)  Antibiotic  Used topically to treat acne  Adverse reactions are usually limited to minor local skin reactions, including burning, itching, dryness, oiliness, and peeling Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.15

16  isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, Sotret)  Treatment of severe recalcitrant cystic acne  Inhibits sebaceous gland activity and has antikeratinizing (anti–skin hardening) and antiinflammatory effects  The company that produced the brand name Accutane has withdrawn it from the market Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.16

17 Classroom Response Question A woman who is taking isotretinoin calls the office to say that she thinks she may be pregnant. What will the nurse instruct the patient to do first? A. Stop the isotretinoin immediately. B.Reduce the dosage of the isotretinoin to every other day. C.Switch to tretinoin (retinoic acid). D.Consult an obstetrician. Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.17

18  isotretinoin (cont’d)  Stringent guidelines for prescribing and use  Required patient counseling regarding use of two forms of contraception and not becoming pregnant during use  Required “iPLEDGE” program for safety  Monitor for signs of depression, suicidal ideations Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.18

19  tretinoin (retinoic acid, vitamin A acid) (Renova, Retin-A)  Used to treat acne  Also used to reduce dermatologic changes associated with sun damage  Stimulates the turnover of epithelial cells, resulting in skin peeling Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.19

20  Main adverse effects are local inflammatory reactions, which are reversible when therapy is discontinued  Common adverse effects are excessively red and edematous blisters, crusted skin, and temporary alterations in skin pigmentation Antiacne Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.20

21  Difficult to eradicate  Therapy may be prolonged  Several weeks to 1 year  Topical fungal infections caused by  Candida albicans: a yeastlike opportunistic fungus present in the normal flora of the mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract  Dermatophytes: tinea or ringworm infections Topical Fungal Infections Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.21

22  clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex-G)  Lozenge for oral candidiasis (thrush)  Vaginal suppository or cream for yeast infections  Other forms used for other fungal infections  miconazole (Monistat)  Topical cream  Vaginal suppository or cream Topical Antifungal Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.22

23  acyclovir (Zovirax) and penciclovir (Denavir)  Both used to treat initial and recurrent herpes simplex infections  Do not cure viral skin infections, but may reduce healing time and pain  Systemic drugs have been shown to be better for controlling viral skin conditions Topical Antiviral Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.23

24  Used to reduce pain or pruritus associated with  Insect bites  Sunburn  Poison ivy exposure  Also used to numb the skin before a painful injection  Ointments, creams, sprays, liquids, jellies  EMLA: lidocaine/prilocaine combination  Ela-max: lidocaine Topical Anesthetic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.24

25  Antihistamines  Corticosteroids  Antiinflammatory effects  Antipruritic effects  Vasoconstrictor actions Topical Antipruritic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.25

26  Antipsoriatic drugs  tazarotene (Tazorac)  tar-containing products  anthralin (Anthra-derm)  calcipotriene (Dovonex)  etanercept (Enbrel)  alefacept (Amevive)  ustekinumab (Stelara) Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.26

27  Topical ectoparasiticidal drugs to treat pediculosis (Phthirus pubis, Pediculus humanus corporis, Pediculus humanus capitis) and scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)  lindane (Kwell)  malathion (Ovide)  crotamiton (Eurax)  benzyl alcohol 5% (Ulesfia)  spinosad (Natroba) Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.27

28  Topical hair growth drug  minoxidil (Rogaine)  For men and women  Systemic hair growth drug  finasteride (Propecia)  Finasteride is classified as a pregnancy category X drug  Women are not to handle this drug without gloves or crush this drug, thereby making it airborne Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.28

29  Sunscreens  Rated by sun protection factor (SPF), which is a number ranging from 2 to 50 (or higher) in order of increasing potency of UV protection  Only those with SPF of 15 or greater may state they reduce the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.29

30  Topical antineoplastics  fluorouracil (Efudex) Basal cell carcinoma Actinic keratosis Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.30

31  Immunomodulators  pimecrolimus (Elidel) Treats atopic dermatitis  imiquimod (Aldara) Treats actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, and anogenital warts Other Topical Dermatologic Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.31

32  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)  Zinc  Topical wound care drugs  Used to prepare wound bed for healing  Remove nonviable tissue (débridement)  Antibacterial Wound Care Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.32

33  sodium hypochlorite (Dakin’s solution)  cadexomer iodine (Iodosorb)  collagenase (Santyl)  biafine topical emulsion  acetic acid (vinegar) Wound Care Drugs (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.33

34 Classroom Response Question At 1300 the nurse assesses a patient who has just returned to the oncology unit after receiving radiation therapy. The patient tells the nurse that his skin “burns a little” in the area that was radiated. The nurse notes an order for biafine topical emulsion. When will the nurse apply the biafine? A B C D Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.34

35 Classroom Response Question A patient has an infected stage II pressure ulcer that contains some necrotic tissue and some normal, healing granulation tissue. The patient is taking warfarin (Coumadin). Which product would be most appropriate for wound care? A. sodium hypochlorite (Dakin’s solution) B. hydrogen peroxide C. collagenase (Santyl) D. Sterile water Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.35

36  isopropyl alcohol (70%)  povidone-iodine (Betadine)  chlorhexidine (Hibiclens)  benzalkonium chloride (Zephiran) Skin Preparation Drugs Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.36

37  Used for wound healing  Adverse effects  Diarrhea  Abdominal pain  Dermatitis  Drug interactions  digoxin  Antidysrhythmics  Diuretics Herbal Products: Aloe Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.37

38  Assess for presence of contraindications, especially drug allergies  Do not apply antiinfective drugs until culture and sensitivity testing (if ordered) are completed Nursing Implications Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.38

39  For isotretinoin (Amnesteem)  Ensure that strict guidelines are in place for monthly pregnancy testing and prescription renewal  Monitor liver function before and during therapy Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.39

40  Assess area affected thoroughly before applying medication  Keep in mind that systemic absorption is higher in the very young and very old because the skin may be more permeable Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.40

41  Follow specific manufacturer’s guidelines for administration techniques  Cleanse the area thoroughly to remove debris and residual medication; follow specific recommendations Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.41

42  Wear gloves when applying topical drugs  Apply dressings (e.g., wet, wet-to-dry, occlusive) as prescribed Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.42

43  Document  Site of application  Drainage (color, amount)  Swelling, temperature  Odor, color, pain, or other sensations  Type of treatment given  Patient’s response Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.43

44  Protect affected area from sunlight  Do not double up on dose if a dose is missed  Ensure proper disposal of contaminated dressings Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.44

45  Provide patient/family teaching as necessary for self-care  Monitor for therapeutic responses  Monitor for adverse effects Nursing Implications (cont’d) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.45

46 Case Study Jane is a 17-year-old patient who is being seen in the dermatology clinic for treatment of acne vulgaris. The nurse practitioner prescribes benzoyl peroxide topically four times a day. Jane tells the nurse that she wants take the drug more frequently so the acne will go away quickly. What information will the nurse provide to Jane? A.“Improvement is usually seen in 1 week.” B.“If you want faster results, a pill form of benzoyl peroxide will be used.” C.“Overuse of this drug can result in painful, reddened skin.” D.“Benzoyl peroxide causes the skin to blister or swell to clear the acne.” Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.46

47 Case Study (cont’d) A few months later, it is determined that Jane is not responding to treatment and is now prescribed isotretinoin. Which statement will the nurse include when teaching Jane about isotretinoin therapy? A.“Call your prescriber immediately if you experience any signs of depression.” B.“If you should become pregnant, the dose of isotretinoin will be cut in half.” C.“Isotretinoin is administered by subcutaneous injection directly into the acne areas.” D.“Isotretinoin should not be used with any form of birth control.” Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.47

48 Case Study (cont’d) During a regular follow-up visit, Jane points out a sore that she has developed on her mouth. She is diagnosed with herpes simplex. Which medication does the nurse anticipate Jane will receive? A. miconazole (Monistat) B. acyclovir (Zovirax) C. clotrimazole (Lotrimin) D. anthralin (Anthra-Derm) Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.48


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