Presentation on theme: "Etymology – etymon (2) ‘Branch of linguistics that studies the origin and the history of vocables’ Historical or diachronic lexicology Etymology? (1) ‘Origin."— Presentation transcript:
Etymology – etymon (2) ‘Branch of linguistics that studies the origin and the history of vocables’ Historical or diachronic lexicology Etymology? (1) ‘Origin and history of a vocable (= grouping of lexical units [= lexemes or idioms])’ Etymon? ‘Linguistic sign (lexeme or affix) from which descended a given linguistic sign’
Etymological classes (1) Inherited lexicon (3) Internal creations (2) Borrowings (= loan words) = normally transmitted lexical units (from the common ancestor of the language family) = lexicals units which were taken from another language = new lexical units constructed from existing materials in the same language
Etymon: inherited lexicon Proto-Germanic *fader Engl. fatherGerm. VaterDutch vadera. s. o. Etymon = Common ancestor of a cognate set
Etymon: borrowings Etymon = Borrowed lexical unit (of the donour langage) Engl. dessert < French dessert
Etymon: internal creations Etyma It depends... (1) Derivation: type of word-formation in which new lexemes are created by adding affixes to existing lexemes Example: (TO) WASH + - ABLE > WASHABLE (2) Compounding: type of word-formation in which new lexemes are created by joining two or more lexemes Example: (TO) SCARE + CROW > SCARECROW
Idioms and collocations? Idioms: Should their etyma be phrases? Clearly, this is a blind spot of etymological theory and practice! Collocations: As collocations are not linguistic signs, they do not have etymologies (nor etyma) However, we should try to identify their source
Example: Fr. poser un lapin poser un lapin [à qqn] lit. « to plant a rabbit [on somebody] » ‘to stand [somebody] up’ Idiom or collocation? TLF: idiom (« Expr. ») poser des lapins ‘to be in the habit of standing [somebody] up’ ne me pose pas de lapin! ‘do not stand me up !’ Collocation!
Diachronic perspective? LAPIN 1 ‘rabbit’ (since ca 1450) monter en lapin ‘to ride a coach sitting next to the coachman (where no passengers are supposed to sit), so as to travel as a passenger in overload’ (1809–1897)
More of the same voyager en lapin ‘to travel [riding a coach] sitting next to the coachman as a passenger in overload’ (1828–1858) EN LAPIN ‘sitting next to the coachman (where no passengers are supposed to sit), so as to travel as a passenger in overload’ (1897) LAPIN 2 ‘passenger in overload in a coach, who sits next to the coachman (where no passengers are supposed to sit)’ (1873–1922)
Towards ‘illicite behaviour’ FAIRE CADEAU D ’ UN LAPIN [à qqn] ‘to omit to pay [a prostitute]’ (1878) POSER UN LAPIN [à qqn] ‘to omit to pay [a prostitute]’ (1881) LAPIN 3 ‘fact of not fulfilling a duty [toward somebody]’ (postulated) poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to fail to meet somebody’s duties’ (1896) poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to leave without paying somebody’s due’ (1896) poser un de ces lapins ‘to fail clearly to meet somebody’s duties’ (1888)
Other ‘illicite behaviour’ poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to stand [somebody] up’ (since 1896) LAPIN 4 ‘appointment at which one does not show up’ (since 2003)
French borrowing in Occitan Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL) 5/1 Castres
Idiom Occitan (Castres) FA DE LAPINS ‘to cover a part of a wineyard which one has left uncultivated by turned over soil in order to give the impression that it has been cultivated’
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