Presentation on theme: "World War I - Trench Warfare. World War I – Trench Warfare People expected World War I to be quick- they had a great deal of confidence in their countries."— Presentation transcript:
World War I - Trench Warfare
World War I – Trench Warfare People expected World War I to be quick- they had a great deal of confidence in their countries. But the war eventually became a stalemate- the fighting tactics used resulted in enormous casualties- estimates suggest that 9.8 million were killed and at least 20 million wounded.
World War I These numbers do not include: - those who died from injuries after the war - the psychological costs for those who fought in the war
The Western Front Fighting began when Germany passed through Belgium into France.
The Western Front Germany’s Plan was to quickly capture and secure Paris so the Western Front would be secure, then it could turn its attention East and deal with Russia.
The Western Front The war became a stalemate-“trench warfare” Trenches were long ditches surrounded by barbed wire to protect the troops. A WWI Trench
The Trench System
Trench Warfare The system of trench warfare resulted in huge loss of life and little gains in territory. The only technique became to “soften up” the enemy trenches by bombarding them with artillery fire, and then send the soldiers “over the top” to try to take the enemy lines.
Trench Warfare To do so was an incredibly dangerous mission: the soldiers had to enter “No man’s land”- the area between the trenches where they were exposed to enemy fire. The trench could finally be taken with brutal hand-to-hand combat fought with bayonets, knives, and swords.
Trench Warfare Much of the time, however, in trenches and in dugouts was spent waiting. Soldiers had to develop ways to pass the time and had to deal with the smell of rotting corpses, body parts, rats and mud that often filled the trenches.
Weaponry In time, new weapons were created to try to increase the ability of soldiers to take an enemy trench.
The Machine Gun The machine gun (a gun that can be repeatedly fired without loading each time) increased the danger of going “over the top”. A Machine Gun
Grenades 1 st made of empty bottles. American soldiers- many of whom had played baseball- introduced more accurate ways of throwing them.
Poison Gas First chlorine, and later mustard gas were used- choking soldiers and burning their skin. The Gas mask developed to counter this.
Airplanes Airplanes are 1 st used in World War I- are used in trench warfare to scout the position of enemy lines.
Airplanes It is later in the war when machine guns are mounted to planes and zeppelins- giant blimps- are used to drop bombs on the enemy.