2 1. Compare collagen and elastin. Collagen is thin, white, transparent tissue found in tendons. It softens to gelatin when cooked. Elastin is tough, elastic, and yellowish and is found in ligaments and blood vessel walls. It must be pounded, cut, or ground to tenderize.
3 2. Describe the two kinds of fat in meat. Meat contains visible and invisible fat. Visible fat includes the fat that surrounds muscle and small white flecks of fat called marbling that appears within the muscle tissue. Invisible fat is part of the chemical composition of meat.
4 3. Compare beef with veal.Veal comes from calves that are one to three months old. Beef comes from cattle more than one year old. Beef has hearty flavor, bright red color, and creamy white fat, whereas veal has mild flavor, light gray-pink color, and very little fat.
5 4. How are wholesale cuts and retail cuts of meat different 4. How are wholesale cuts and retail cuts of meat different? Give examples of each.Meat is first divided into large wholesale cuts, also called primal cuts, which are sold to retail stores. The retailer divides wholesale cuts into retail cuts, which are the smaller cuts you find for sale.Example: Wholesale—chuck from the shoulder area; retail cuts from chuck include blade roast, short ribs, and arm pot roast.
6 5. Compare the prime, choice, and select grades of meat. Prime is the highest and most expensive grade. It is well marbled, tender, and flavorful. Choice has less marbling than prime but is still tender and flavorful. Select has the least marbling and is the least expensive.
7 6. Why is meat from the loin more tender than meat from the chuck? The more movement an animal’s muscle gets, the more developed it is and the less tender the meat from that area is. Because muscles along the backbone get very little movement, meat from that area is more tender than meat from other parts. Loin cuts are from the areas that get little movement while chuck cuts are from muscles that get a great deal of movement.
8 8. How does marbling affect tenderness? 7. While buying meat, a consumer was trying figure out which cuts might be the most tender. How might this be determined?Bone shapes can be a clue. Blade bones have less tender meat, and rib and T-shaped bones have more tender meat.8. How does marbling affect tenderness?Marbled fat melts during cooking, penetrates muscles tissue, and separates fibers, making meat easier to chew.
9 9. How can less tender pieces of meat be tenderized before cooking? The meat can be ground, pounded, or cut into smaller pieces. Cooks can also add acids or meat tenderizer.10. Explain the fat percentages in different kinds of ground beef.Ground beef—no more than 30% fat (least expensive, shrinks the most)Ground chuck—15—20% fat (flavorful, juicy hamburgers)Lean—less than 10% total fat (costs more)
10 11. What are variety meats? Give examples. The edible organs and extremities of beef, veal, lamb, and pork, such as liver, kidneys, chitterlings, pig’s feet, tripe, brains, heart, tongue, oxtails, and sweetbreads.12. Describe three ways that meats are processed.Curing is treating meat with salt or a salt solution. Smoking is exposing the meat to wood smoke (or liquid smoke) to preserve and flavor it. Cooking the meat is a third processing method.
11 13. Are all process meats ready to eat? Explain. No; only processed meats that have been precooked are ready to eat.14. How does pasteurization affect meat?It extends the shelf life of the meat.
12 15. Name three different kinds of convenience meats. Canned meat entrees, frozen entrees, and ready-to-cook meats, such as preformed meatloaf.
13 16. How can a cook save money when shopping for meat? Decide how much meat you need, and buy only that amount.Choose the cut that looks the leanest.Remember that tender cuts are usually more expensive than less tender ones. Learn to cook less tender cuts.Compare the cost per serving of different cuts.If you find a bargain not on your shopping list, change your plans.
14 17. How long can each of these meats be stored in the refrigerator? A) Liver _____one day___________B) Ground meat ____two days_____C) Pork chops ___three to five days_
15 18. How does meat change when cooked? It becomes firmer, fat melts, and connective tissues soften, making the meat tender, juicy, and flavorful.19. Why should cooks avoid overcooking meat?Overcooked meat is tough and dry as well as difficult to cut and digest.
16 20. How should meat be prepared for cooking? Rinse under cold water and pat dry with a paper towel. Trim any visible fat, using a sharp knife and cutting board. Fat is easier to trim when meat is very cold or partially frozen.
17 21. How is meat marinated?Mix ingredients in the marinade, including an acidic ingredient. Pour mixture over the meat, cover, and refrigerate for no more than 24 hours.22. How does a cook know when meat is done and ready to eat?Use a meat thermometer, since doneness is hard to judge visually.
18 23. What is the difference between broiling and grilling meat? Broiled meat is prepared in the oven, while grilled meat is prepared on a grill.
19 24. How do you roast meat?Place the meat fat side up on a rack in a roasting pan. Season as desired. Insert an oven-safe meat thermometer. Roast dry and uncovered at 325 degrees F. Remove from oven when thermometer registers five degrees lower than the desired internal temperature. Let the roast stand for 15—25 minutes before carving.
20 25. Describe three ways to prepare less tender cuts of meat. Broil meat by placing the broiler pan so the meat is 2—5 inches from the heat. Broil until the top is brown and the meat is slightly more than half done inside. Turn and complete the broiling on the other side.Grill meat by placing the meat on the grate and turn regularly to cook through. Brushing with sauce adds flavor.
21 Roast meat by placing fat side up in an open, shallow roasting pan Roast meat by placing fat side up in an open, shallow roasting pan. Use a meat thermometer and do not add water or cover the pan. Remove from the oven when the thermometer reaches the desired temperature. Let stand 15—20 minutes to allow the juices to set and for the roast to be easier to carve.
22 Fry in an uncovered, preheated skillet with a small amount of fat Fry in an uncovered, preheated skillet with a small amount of fat. If you cover, the meat cooks in moist heat and loses crispness and flavor.Pan-broil meat that is 1 inch or less in thickness. Use medium heat and do not cover. Turn occasionally and pour off fat as it accumulates.
23 Braising is good for large, less tender cuts of meat Braising is good for large, less tender cuts of meat. Pat dry so the meat browns easily. Brown slowly on all sides in a large heavy pan. After browning, drain off excess fat and add enough liquid to cover the bottom of the pan about ¼ inch deep. Keep under the meat to prevent burning. Simmer on low heat until tender.
24 Pressure-cooking cooks the meat in moist heat and tenderizes it under high pressure in a short period of time. Refer to the cooker’s manual and follow instructions.A slow cooker is ideal for less tender cuts. The meat is cooked at a low temperature for a long cooking time. If the lid is opened, the cooking time is lengthened.
25 Microwaving meat is not good for uneven cuts. Include standing time Microwaving meat is not good for uneven cuts. Include standing time. The meat will not brown as a result of cooking but a sauce or gravy may help.
26 26. Why doesn’t meat cooked in a microwave oven develop a brown crust? Since microwave ovens cook with moist heat, meat will not have the crisp, dark brown crust and characteristic flavor of meat cooked in dry heat.
27 Terms 1. Cold cuts—Processed slices of cold meat and poultry. 2. Collagen—Thin, white, transparent tissue found in tendons, between muscle cells, and between muscles.3. Connective tissue—Thin sheets of protein material that bind muscle fiber into bundles.
28 4. Cut—Specific, edible par of meat, such as a steak, chop, or roast. 5. Doneness—The point at which meat has cooked enough to make it flavorful and safe to eat.6. Elastin—Tough, elastic, yellowish connective tissue found in ligaments and blood vessel walls.7. Grain—Lengthwise direction of muscle.
29 8. Marbling—Small white flecks of fat in meat; may appear within muscle tissue. 9. Meat—Edible muscle of animals, typically cattle, sheep, ad pigs.10. Muscle—Tissue made of long, thin cells, sometimes called muscle fibers, that are bound into bindles with thin sheets of protein material.11. Processed meats—Meats changed by various methods to add flavor and help preserve them.
30 12. Retail cuts—Cuts of meat for sale. 13. Variety meats—Edible organs and extremities of beef, veal, lamb, and pork.14. Wholesale cuts—Large cuts of meat sold to retail stores.