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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 31 Resistant Materials Plastics These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 31
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 31 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 31 Learning objectives To understand the differences between thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics. To become familiar with the properties of different types of plastic, and know what each is typically used for. To be aware of the origins of plastics and with the range of industrial processes used to manufacture plastic products.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 31 Plastics Formed by heat Thermoplastic plastics: Soften when heated Can be reheated and reshaped Mostly recyclable Made of long polymer chains with few cross links There are two main groups of plastics: thermosetting plastics thermoplastic plastics. What does the word ‘plastic’ mean? The word ‘plastic’ means ‘easily shaped or moulded’.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 31 Initially set by heat Thermosetting plastics: Cannot be reshaped once set Strong and durable Common in powder or resin forms Consist of polymer chains with strong bonds between each chain What items do you have in your possession that are made of plastic? Are they made from thermoplastic or thermosetting plastics? Plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 31 individual monomer molecule Thermoplastic plastics are made of long chains of polymers which don’t cross over very often. When heated, the molecules slip easily over one another. Thermosetting plastics also have lots of long chain molecules, but there are links between them. These cross links prevent the molecules from moving over one another. Plastics Which of these diagrams depicts a thermoplastic and which depicts a thermosetting plastic?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 31 The majority of common plastics are thermoplastics. Thermoplastics can be heated and reshaped because of the ways in which the molecules are joined together. This can be repeated many times (as long as no damage is caused by overheating). Heat Cool Harden Soften Thermoplastic plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 31 Thermoplastic plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 31 They are heated and moulded during manufacture. Once cooled, they will not soften again when heated. This breaks the potentially unending cycle that thermoplastic plastics are capable of. If heated too much, they burn. Thermosetting plastics are those which are set with heat and have little elasticity. Once set, they cannot be reheated and reformed. Heat Cool Harden Soften Burn Thermosetting plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 31 Thermosetting plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 31 Here are some common products made from thermoplastics. Can you say which type of thermoplastic each one is made of? Acrylic High density polythene ABS Low density polythene Polypropylene What other uses do these thermoplastics have? Uses of plastics (thermoplastics) Why do thermoplastics make good materials for these products? Polystyrene
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 31 Thermosets have different qualities to thermoplastics. Can you say which thermoset each of these products is made from? Melamine formaldehyde Urea formaldehyde GRP Phenol formaldehyde Epoxy resin What other uses do these thermosets have? Uses of plastics (thermosets) Why are thermosets good materials for these particular products?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 31 Working with plastics – considerations
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 31 They are strong. They are light in weight. They can be shaped into very complex shapes. They can be shaped easily, quickly and cheaply. They are available in a large range of colours. They are tough and durable. They are soft to the touch. Think of five reasons why we use plastics. How many of them are mentioned below? Why do we use plastics?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 31 Plastic materials were first used at around 2000BC. Plastics can occur naturally in trees or even milk; amber is an example (a resin from trees and insects). Amber was used by early Egyptians to make jewellery and is still used for this purpose today. Today, numerous different plastics are available. Some are still made from natural materials but most modern plastics are manufactured from chemicals obtained from crude oil. Plastics manufacturers convert chemicals into plastics. What implications do you think this has for the environment? Early and modern plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 31 We obtain crude oil from under ground, either on land or at sea. After it has been pumped, it is heated in a fractioning tower and broken down into chemicals. The chemicals consist of nitrogen, carbon, chlorine, sulfur and water. Pump Pipeline Oil well Layers of rock Gas Oil Oil - the raw material for plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 31 The birth of plastics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 31 Acrylic is available in many different colours. These properties make acrylic ideal for shop signs. It is also used to make many outer cases for toys. It comes in sheets or as round rods. It can be softened and bent, blown or twisted into many different shapes. Acrylic is stronger than glass, but scratches easily. Acrylic can resist the weather very well. Acrylic
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 31 Polystyrene foam can be easily shaped and is very light. This makes it suitable for modelling three-dimensional objects. Which other uses for polystyrene can you think of? Polystyrene foam
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 31 Bakelite was one of the first artificial plastics and was created in 1909 by Leo Baekeland. It is used for telephones, radios and electrical equipment. Bakelite is a hard, brittle plastic that has a natural dark glossy colour. It resists heat without softening. It is a good thermal insulator and a good electrical insulator. When overheated, it burns and smells. Bakelite – a very early plastic
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 31 Melamine plastics have similar properties to Bakelite. However, they have the added advantage of being able to be coloured during processing. Melamine formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde are two types of melamine plastics. Melamine Melamine formaldehyde Urea formaldehyde
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 31 Polyester resin is a chemical hardener. It will set at room temperature. When set, the plastic is stiff, hard and brittle. When working with it in large projects, it is advised to use gloves and a chemical respirator to protect yourself from the fumes. Polyester resin can be reinforced with glass fibre. Glass-reinforced polyester resin or glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) is used for making motor cycle fairings and boats. Polyester resin
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 31 When plastic is used to make a large number of identical products, industrial processes are used. Specialized machines are used to mass produce products. Press play to see a video of the vacuum forming process. Vacuum forming
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 31 What similarities and differences can you identify between the vacuum forming and injection moulding processes? Injection moulding
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 31 What similarities and differences can you identify between the blow moulding and vacuum forming processes? Blow moulding
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 31 What products can you think of that have been manufactured using a strip heater? Line bending
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 26 of 31 What is the difference between male and female moulds? Compression moulding
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 27 of 31 Can you think of any other products that are manufactured using extrusion? Extrusion
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 28 of 31 Plastics have excellent surface qualities. As they are self-finishing, plastics require little or no surface finish. However, when designers want a specific colour or texture, spray paints can be used. Use wet and dry paper (wet) to smooth the surface down and create a ‘key’ for the primer to grip to. Primer is used to create an undercoat to protect the plastic and provide a good surface finish for the top coat. The primer should be rubbed down using wet and dry paper between coats. Top coat is applied once the primer has completely hardened. There are different surface textures; gloss, matt and metallic being the most common. Top coat is applied in several layers to build up a thick, tough surface layer on the top of the primer. Finishing techniques
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 29 of 31 Plastics are very useful materials. They are durable, easy to join, self-finishing, easy to mould and not susceptible to rot or sust. However, sometimes their properties are enhanced by combining them with other materials. Carbon fibre can be added to thermosetting plastics to improve their strength. Golf clubs, tennis racquets, cycle frames and fishing rods are made using carbon fibre composite. Plastics combined with other materials
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 30 of 31 Working with plastics – keywords
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 31 of 31 Key points © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 31 Key points Plastics can come under the categories of thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics. Both have very different properties. Most modern plastics are manufactured from chemicals obtained from crude oil. Plastic can be shaped or formed using a variety of industrial processes such as vacuum forming, injection moulding, blow moulding, line bending, compression moulding and extrusion. There are also a number of finishing techniques that can be used to give a particular colour or texture to a plastic.
© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Project on thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics Submitted by- Shubham Saxena Sneha S.
Materials Revision Metals, Plastics, and Woods This powerpoint runs through materials and their properties, fixing methods (temporary and permanent), and.
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the.
Plastics and their uses High Density Polythene Low Density Polythene Polyvinyl Chloride Polystyrene Nylon Cellulose Acetate Acrylic Polypropylene ABS Epoxy.
Learning Intentions: We will learn about different kinds of plastic, their uses and how to form them I will know I am successful if: I understand the difference.
Why use plastics Plastic are easily formed materials. The advantage to the manufacturer is that plastic products can be mass- produced and require less.
Specification section 1.3. What do you need to learn? The advantages and disadvantages of the following thermoplastics when manufacturing products: Acrylic,
Plastics Plastics are a common material used today. Examples of plastic products: a) b)
Learning Intention Know different types of plastics Be aware of the different characteristics of different plastics Be able to identify a number of types.
POLYMERS. Thermoplastics Thermoplastics soften when heated and can be moulded into required shapes when in this state. They will harden again on cooling.
Advantages of Plastic Light weight Resistant to corrosion Low thermal conductivity Can be translucent, transparent and opaque Electrically resistant Easily.
After completing this topic you should be able to : State that a thermosoftening plastic is one, which can be melted or reshaped; and that a thermosetting.
- To be able to identify different types of plastic and their properties - To be able to select an appropriate plastic for a product. - To be able to name.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Graphic Products Materials These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.
Technical aspects of designing and making Materials.
Composites Learning Intention: Show an understanding of the term composite Be aware of practical applications of some composites.
THERMOPLASTICS - AIMS: To understand: What thermoplastics are… Why we use them… When we wouldn’t use them… and to identify examples of thermoplastics.
Polymers A level Product Design Unit 2 -To understand the molecular structure of polymers and how it has an effect on its properties -To identify a range.
© Boardworks Ltd of 15 Resistant Materials Manufacturing Processes These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available.
© Boardworks Ltd of 14 Topic 1.2 Metals What students need to learn Aesthetic, functional and mechanical properties, application and advantages/disadvantages.
Plastic Can you think of advantages or disadvantages of using plastics in our daily lives? Can you name different products made out of plastic ?
Plastics Quiz. Question 1 Which type of plastics cannot be reshaped or remoulded once set? Thermosetting plastics shiny plastics Thermoplasticsbrittle.
There are many ways to shape plastics below is a short list of some of the most common methods used in schools and industry though not limited to: Injection.
CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT WAID ACADEMY Plastics. Most plastics are made from chemicals obtained from 1.biogas 2.plant material 3.crude oil 4.natural gas 20.
General Background Plastics are useful durable materials They have the disadvantage that they don't naturally decompose This poses a major environmental.
Manufacturing Processes & Techniques Designers need to understand a wide range of manufacturing processes and techniques to match their knowledge of materials.
PLASTICS Mr. Hart UWC Maastricht Diploma HL/SL Why use plastics Plastic are easily formed materials. The advantage to the manufacturer is that plastic.
Plastics Ikmalzatul Abdullah. Plastics 1.Introduction 2.Polymerisation process 3.Types of plastics 4.Properties 5.Uses in construction Objectives: To.
DTEL 1 UNIT vI PLASTIC AND PLASTIC PROCESSES. DTEL 2DTEL 2 CHAPTER 6:- SYLLABUSDTEL Introduction to plastic,propertise & types, Plastic process.
Material Properties 2 In this presentation there will be images of a range of different products. Think about what the properties are of the materials.
COMPOSITES Created by: Michael Oyebode. WHAT IS A COMPOSITE? A complex material made of two or more separate substances.
© Boardworks Ltd of 15 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the.
Develop an understanding for the need of ergonomic design. Develop an understanding of how to calculate an average size using anthropometric data Learning.
24.1 Plastics as important materials in the modern world P. 1 / 4 Chapter 24 A ddition p olymers 24.1 Plastics as important materials in the modern world.
© Boardworks Ltd of 21 Resistant Materials Tools and Techniques These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in.
Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: April 14, 2000 Slide:1 Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing Class 17: Plastics.
Plastics & Adhesives. Plastics can be derived from Coal Natural Gas Other Petroleum Products Cotton Wood Waste Organic Matter.
Biotechnology- Plastics. Additives in plastic Plastics can become composites or smart materials when their properties are altered by the addition of additives.
CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT WAID ACADEMY Standard Grade Topic 13.
Polymers Polymers or ’plastics’ are a relatively modern material. They were first produced in the early twentieth century; their use grew rapidly during.
© Boardworks Ltd of 10 Product Design Ceramics © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Product Design Ceramics These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful.
Plastics Ashley Morris. What are they ? A synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc Its.
GROUP -8,MEMBERS- TEJASVIN,SUSHANT,AVIRAL,P UNEET & LAAKSHI.
1 Materials Candidates should be able to: understand the physical and working properties in relation to using the common constructional materials, ie;
Graphics Revision Guide (Part 1) Pager sizes and weights Types of paper Corrugated Card Coated Card Oiled card Polystyrene Corruflute Low Tack Masking.
Plastics A. Plastic is a common name for polymers: materials made of long strings of carbon and other elements. Each unit in a string is called a monomer,
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