http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EsgIjQrd nE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EsgIjQrd nE Who are the people in the video? What are their jobs? What are the factors that go into the design of a skate park?
Roles: ◦ Owner of Future Skate Park ◦ Construction Worker ◦ Realtor ◦ Designer Things to Consider: ◦ Who’s job is it to oversee this factor? ◦ Do people compromise for this factor? ◦ Are there any other factors to consider?
More skaters have taken to the streets: ◦ Damages handrails, curbs, and concrete steps Many cities have banned skating and hand out tickets. Reasons: ◦ Demand is high and growing. ◦ Skate Park is one of the most widely used facility within the park system. ◦ Most skaters are polite, considerate, and grateful for the facility. ◦ Most skaters are drawn away from the streets.
Spine with Rollover Pyramid with Planter Multi-Level Grind Box Kinked Grind Box Elbow with Banks Quarter Pipe Start Box/ Concrete Platform Open Half Bowl/Concrete Design Spine Bowl/Concrete Elbows Vert Ramp
Street Courses: ◦ These areas are typically designed with a perimeter of 1/4 pipes, banked walls, elbows and roll-in ramps, to build up speed and to bank off of. Within the street course are apparatus for the skaters to launch over and jump or grind on: pyramids, launch boxes, grind boxes, handrails, curbs, moguls, etc. Vert and Mini Half-Pipes: ◦ Half pipes are "U" shaped ramps with steel coping (2" pipe) and a flat deck at the top of the "U". Vert ramps are typically 10' to 12' tall, 24' to 36' wide and about 50' long. Mini ramps are smaller versions of the vert, 4' to 8' tall, 16' to 24' wide and about 40' long.
Bowls ◦ These pool like shapes are slope sided and range anywhere from 3' to 12' deep. Shapes can be round, oval, kidney or clover leaf. Large bowls may contain pyramids or moguls inside. Snake Runs ◦ These are irregularly shaped relatively narrow, shallow ditches with curved or banked sides. These runs allow skaters to flow through the course, moving from one side to another. Variations in height and degree of slope are designed into the run to allow for speed and fluidity.
Grants: http://www.tonyhawkfoundation.org/skatepa rk-grants/apply/ http://www.tonyhawkfoundation.org/skatepa rk-grants/apply/ Community Fundraiser Local Businesses Skate Related Companies Federal and State Monies
Wood Ramps - $80,000 (not including concrete pad). Steel Framed Ramps - $120,000 (not including concrete pad). Concrete Skatepark - $225,000 or $20 to $25 a square foot.
Centrally located areas, close to other recreational activities and highly visible from the street. Public amenities such as phones, water fountains and rest rooms should be close by. Avoid areas that would attract the excessive loitering of non-skaters and transients. The area should be easily monitored by police cruisers to insure the safety of the park visitors. The best place is within an existing park or recreational area.
The skatepark should be accessible to non-drivers, preferably along a bus route or within easy walking distance to residential areas. The average age of skaters that will use the skatepark is approximately 14 years, consider how they will get to the park. Automobile parking is not a major issue, though some should be provided along with plenty of bicycle parking. Experience shows that most skaters will be dropped off at the park by their parents and many will want to stop and watch for awhile. Provide viewing areas, preferably at a higher elevation of the skatepark.
Constructing a series of small activity areas along an existing bike path. Utilizing the area of an abandoned railroad right of way. Using abandoned or under used parking lots or tennis courts.
It is important that the ramps are built to withstand years of abuse, there are no screws sticking up, the ramp surface is durable and that the area where the ramp bottom meets the pavement is a smooth transition. Minimum construction standards for wood ramps might include the following: ◦ 3/4" plywood transition templates, on ends and every 4' to 6'. ◦ 2" x 6" joists, spaced 8" on center, 4' to 6' spans ◦ 2 layers of 1/2" plywood sub-surface ◦ 3/8" Polyboard, 12 gauge steel or 1/4" Skatelite ramp top layer ◦ 12 ga." x 24" steel for all ramp bottoms ◦ coping, 1.5" or 2" schedule 40 pipe ◦ Steel framed ramps should be minimally constructed of 12 gauged steel and should either be painted or powder coated to prevent rust. Top surfaces should be similar to wood ramps.
Primary skate runs, the path skaters take to do their tricks, should be designed in parallel or directional, reducing the risk of skaters running into one another. Transitions and the spacing between obstacles should be appropriate to the height and intended use of the equipment. Vert ramps, bowls and snake runs should be incorporated into the design to make the parks challenging, insuring that skaters will come back for more. In addition, designs need to include areas for public observation and shaded areas for skaters to put on their pads or to take a break. Safety is always a primary concern. Although skating is an inherently dangerous activity, steps can be taken to eliminate much of the danger through good design and by using quality materials and construction techniques.
Wood and Steel If designed and built properly, wood ramps can withstand many years of abuse by both skaters and the weather. Wood parks are relatively inexpensive, easy to build and can be placed on an existing concrete or asphalt pad (old tennis or basketball court, parking lot, etc.). ◦ Because of these features, a park can start out small and can be expanded as interest and funding grows. In addition, some wood equipment can be moved to change the configuration of the park, creating new challenges for the skaters to enjoy. As a material, wood is not nearly as flexible in terms of design as concrete, but most skatepark apparatus can be built in wood - ramps of all shapes and sizes, vert half pipes and even bowls. All outdoor wood equipment should be constructed of treated lumber and surfaced with a permanent, water and impact resistant skin (steel or Skatelite). Just about any statement made about wood ramps can also be applied to steel framed ramps. They are very similar in design and construction. The important distinctions are that steel framed ramps are typically more portable and will last longer, if made with heavy gauged tubing. On the down side, steel is considerably more expensive and, as they are built off-site, do not lend themselves to be custom built.
Concrete Concrete is the material of choice for permanent, outdoor skate parks. The material is fluid and allows unlimited shapes to be integrated into the design. Objects can flow from one to another with no interruptions. Long flowing designs that incorporate soft bumps as well as curbs, ledges, rails and steps can be easily built to make interesting and challenging runs for skaters of all experience levels. Concrete parks are built from the earth up. This allows for a more esthetically pleasing park by incorporating varying elevations and by integrating grassy knolls, shade trees and observation areas. Critical factors of concrete parks are the design and implementation of the transitions and placement of the coping. If a concrete park is poorly design or built, you're stuck with a white elephant that skaters won't skate.
Combination of Wood Ramps and Concrete Concrete and wood are both excellent materials to use for skate park construction and the ideal park would incorporate both. Concrete is permanent, allows for greater flow and a fluid design. It should be used on the outside of the skate park for the skaters to drop in to gain speed and to end their runs. Concrete structures would include small roll-in ramps, banks and elbows, along with standard street elements like curbs and planters. Concrete is also the material of choice for bowls and snake runs. Wood allows for more exacting transitions, straighter edges and smaller wood structures can be moved on occasion to create new challenges for the skaters. Wood structures would be placed in the center of the park and include pyramids, launch and fun boxes, and boxes with rails. Wood is also the ideal material for vert and mini half-pipes, as proper transitions are critical for these types of ramps.
Reports from over 50 public skateparks operating nationwide show that liability claims are minimal and skating is far less dangerous than perceived. Soccer players are almost twice as likely to be injured as skateboarders, while basketball players and baseball players are 3 and 4 times, respectively, more likely to be injured. One third of all skateboard injuries were suffered by new skaters (less than one week experience) and 40% by persons borrowing a friends skateboard. Half of all injuries occur due to an irregular skate surface. A few states have codes that release cities from liability suits resulting from recreational accidents on city owned recreational facilities, provided there is proper signage alerting the participant to the inherent danger of the activity. Some cities have fenced in, supervised skateparks, staffed with CPR and 1st aid trained employees and set operating hours. Other cities maintain "skate at your own risk" facilities.
Signage and Safety Equipment - Post signs at the entrance and/or throughout the park warning of the inherent risks of skateboarding and inline skating. Signs should also recommend that skaters wear safety equipment, knee pads, helmets, elbow pads and wrist guards. At unsupervised parks the skaters won't wear the safety gear. At supervised parks they are required to. Supervision - If your park is meant to be supervised, make sure that all employees are trained in the appropriate first aid, are sufficiently mature and assertive enough to enforce rules, and that phones are available for emergency calls. Design - A well designed park is a safe park. Design separate areas for beginners, intermediate and advanced skaters. Skate paths should run in parallel lines to keep skaters from running into one another. Obstacle heights should be appropriate for the experience level of the skaters. Transitions, slopes and bank angles should be appropriate to the height of equipment as well as the intended use. On half pipes construct guards to keep skateboards from flying away. Over build wood ramps to minimize maintenance. Maintenance - Establish an inspection routine and follow it. Document all routine inspections and maintain equipment ASAP. Close off ramps when they are in need of repair. Document all efforts. Keep the area free of dirt and debris, close the park when wet, and allow wood ramps to dry completely before allowing skating.
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