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No, not gerbils— verbals! A verbal is a form of a verb but it is NOT a verb!

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Presentation on theme: "No, not gerbils— verbals! A verbal is a form of a verb but it is NOT a verb!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 No, not gerbils— verbals! A verbal is a form of a verb but it is NOT a verb!

3  There are three types of verbals:  Participles  Gerunds  Infinitives

4 AA participle is a form of a verb, but it is NOT a verb. IIt is an ADJECTIVE. PParticiples end in: ---ing ---ed ---en

5 The kittens crouching under the bed refused to come out. The subject is KITTENS. The verb is REFUSED. So what does CROUCHING describe? It acts as an ADJECTIVE describing the noun KITTENS.

6 The activist called for a waiting period for gun purchases. The subject is ACTIVIST. The verb is CALLED. So what does WAITING describe? It acts as an ADJECTIVE describing the noun PERIOD.

7 The police officers searched the abandoned warehouse. The subject is POLICE OFFICERS. The verb is SEARCHED. So what does ABANDONED describe? It acts as an ADJECTIVE describing the noun WAREHOUSE.

8 A badly cracked mirror hung crookedly on the wall in the foyer. The subject is MIRROR. The verb is HUNG. So what does CRACKED describe? It acts as an ADJECTIVE describing the noun MIRROR.

9  Find the subject and verb. Draw an arrow to the noun that the participle is modifying:  The papers, aged and yellow, were found in the file cabinet.  Shouting loudly, Jessica warned the pedestrian to look out for the car.  The sparkling water splashed in our faces.  Carefully painted and decorated, the pinata glittered in the sunlight.

10  The papers, aged and yellow, were found in the file cabinet.  The subject is PAPERS.  The verb is WERE FOUND.  AGED modifies PAPERS.  AGED is an adjective.

11 Shouting loudly, Jessica warned the pedestrian to look out for the car.  JESSICA is the SUBJECT  WARNED is the VERB  SHOUTING modifies JESSICA  SHOUTING is an adjective

12  The sparkling water splashed in our faces.  WATER is the SUBJECT  SPLASHED is the VERB  SPARKLING modifies WATER  SPARKLING is an adjective.

13  Carefully painted and decorated, the pinata glittered in the sunlight.  PINATA is the SUBJECT.  GLITTERED is the VERB.  PAINTED and DECORATED modify PINATA  PAINTED and DECORATED are adjectives.

14  Remember…PARTICIPLES are ADJECTIVES.

15 AA gerund is a form of a verb, but it is NOT a verb. IIt is a noun. GGerunds end in: ---ing

16  Gerunds can be used in four ways:  Subjects  Direct objects  Predicate nominatives  Objects of the preposition

17 1. As a Subject ▪ Jogging can be good exercise.

18 2. As a Direct Object ▪ Did they enjoy hiking?

19 3. As a Predicate Nominative ▪ My favorite hobby is fishing.

20 4. As an Object of the Preposition ▪ Lock the door before leaving. Gerunds used 4 ways

21 Studying usually pays off nicely with higher test scores. The subject is STUDYING. The verb is PAYS. Studying is a SUBJECT.

22 Many government groups forbid releasing student information to outside groups. The subject is GROUPS. The verb is FORBID. Forbid what? RELEASING. RELEASING is a DIRECT OBJECT.

23 My favorite form of relaxation is shopping. The subject is FORM. The verb is IS. RELAXATION = SHOPPING SHOPPING is a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE.

24 The study shows a link between using computers and improving student performance. The subject is STUDY. The verb is SHOWS. BETWEEN is a preposition USING and IMPROVING are the objects of the preposition BETWEEN.

25  Locate the subject and verb.  Identify the underlined gerund as:  S -- Subject  DO -- Direct Object  OP -- Object of the Preposition  PN -- Predicate Nominative

26  The dog keeps barking at the neighbor.  Michael decided to stop before turning left.  Uncle Mark’s specialty is barbecuing on the grill.  Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s speaking helped the Civil Rights movement.

27  The dog keeps barking at the neighbor.  The subject is DOG.  The verb is KEEPS.  Dog keeps doing what? BARKING.  In this case, the GERUND is a DIRECT OBJECT.

28  Michael decided to stop before turning left.  The subject is MICHAEL.  The verb is DECIDED.  BEFORE is the preposition and TURNING is the object of the preposition.  The GERUND is the OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION.

29  Uncle Mark’s specialty is barbecuing on the grill.  SPECIALTY is the subject.  IS is the VERB.  BARBECUING is a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE.  The GERUND is a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE.

30  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s speaking helped the Civil Rights movement.  The subject is SPEAKING.  The verb is HELPED.  The form of a verb that ends in ING and acts as a NOUN is a GERUND.  The GERUND is also the SUBJECT.

31  Remember…GERUNDS are NOUNS.

32  An infinitive is a form of a verb, but it is NOT a verb.  It is can be a ▪ noun ▪ adjective ▪ adverb  It is ALWAYS “to” plus a verb.

33  Students need to learn the parts of speech.  The subject is STUDENTS.  The verb is NEED.  NEED what? To learn.  To learn is the DIRECT OBJECT.  The infinitive is a NOUN.

34  The attorney has the right to represent you.  The subject is ATTORNEY.  The verb is HAS.  To represent is an adjective explaining which type of “right”.  The INFINTIVE is an ADJECTIVE.

35  The ants have arrived to grab the leftovers from the picnic.  The subject is ANTS.  The verb is HAVE ARRIVED.  The infinitive is to grab—an adverb, explaining why they HAVE ARRIVED.  THE INFINITIVE is an ADVERB.

36  Practice: Locate the subject and verb in each sentence. Underline the infinitive and determine whether it is a noun, adverb or adjective.  She likes to skate but not to ski.  To install the ceiling fan took two hours.  The best time to visit Florida is December  The driver stopped at the hotel to rest.

37  She likes to skate but not to ski. ▪ The subject is SHE. ▪ The verb is LIKES. ▪ To skate and to ski are direct objects of the verb LIKES. ▪ The INFINITIVES are NOUNS.

38  To install the ceiling fan took two hours. ▪ The subject is TO INSTALL. ▪ The verb is TOOK. ▪ To install is the SUBJECT of the sentence. ▪ The infinitive is a NOUN.

39  The best time to visit Florida is December. ▪ The subject is TIME. ▪ The verb is IS. ▪ To visit modifies the subject TIME. ▪ The infinitive is an ADJECTIVE.

40  The driver stopped at the hotel to rest. ▪ The subject is DRIVER. ▪ The verb is STOPPED. ▪ To rest modifies the verb STOPPED. ▪ The infinitive is an ADVERB.

41  Remember…INFINITIVES can be  NOUNS  ADJECTIVES  ADVERBS

42  Identify each underlined word as a  PARTICIPLE  GERUND  INFINITIVE  Find the subject and verb FIRST!  Underline the subject once.  Underline the verb twice.

43 1. The thief arrested for the robbery shot at the security guard. 2. The flag waving in the wind is inspirational. 3. To give blood is a wonderful gift. 4. Tyler’s confusing message did nothing to help solve the mystery. 5. Godzilla made a game of smashing all of the red cars parked near the lake.

44 1. The thief arrested for the robbery shot at the security guard. Participle 2. The flag waving in the wind is inspirational. Participle 3. To give blood is a wonderful gift. Infinitive (noun) 4. Tyler’s confusing message did nothing to help solve the mystery. Participle 5. Godzilla made a game of smashing all of the red cars parked near the lake. Gerund (prep. phrase)

45 1.The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker. 2.Planning a large party is quite an undertaking. 3.The wrapped gift she gave me was beautiful. 4.To lift those weights takes a lot of effort. 5.Ethan avoided doing his homework

46 1.The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker. Infinitive (adverb) 2. Planning a large party is quite an undertaking. Gerund (subject) 3. The professionally wrapped gift was beautiful. Participle 4.To lift those weights takes a lot of effort. Infinitive (noun) 5. Ethan avoided doing his homework. Gerund (D.O.)

47 1.Samuel decided that missing the lecture every day was hurting his grade. 2.Delighted with the opportunity to learn, Christine took the internship in New York. 3.Brenda seemed surprised by the team’s decision to withdraw. 4. Completing the obstacle course is harder than it looks.

48 1. Samuel decided that missing the lecture every day was hurting his grade. Gerund (subject) 2. Delighted with the opportunity to learn, Christine took the internship in New York. Participle 3. Brenda seemed surprised by the team’s decision to withdraw. Participle 4. Completing the obstacle course is harder than it looks. Gerund (subject)

49 1.Drew refused to accept the idea that his birthday cake was gone. 2.Emily’s whining was getting on our nerves. 3.The completed meal was so beautiful that we didn’t want to eat it. 4.The show offers everyone a chance to learn Spanish. 5. My favorite activity is skiing.

50 1.Drew refused to accept the idea that his birthday cake was gone. Infinitive (noun) 2.Emily’s whining was getting on our nerves. Gerund (subject) 3.The completed meal was so beautiful that we didn’t want to eat it. Participle 4.The show offers everyone a chance to learn Spanish. Infinitive (adjective) 5. My favorite activity is skiing. Gerund (predicate nominative)

51  Turn to page 514 in your Elements of Writing textbook.  Complete the following exercises:  Exercise 4, Page 514, #1-10  Exercise 5, Page 516, #1-10  Exercise 6, Page 516, #1-5

52  Turn to page 518 in your Elements of Writing textbook.  Complete the following exercises:  Exercise 7, Page 519, #1-10  Exercise 8, Page 52o, #1-10  Exercise 9, Page 521, #1-5

53  Turn to page 522 in your Elements of Writing textbook.  Complete the following exercises:  Exercise 11, Page 522, #1-10  Exercise 12, Page 524, #1-10  Exercise 13, Page 524, #1-5

54 THE END


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