In what way are fish able to maximize the oxygen exchange at their gills? 2
Countercurrent-exchange system in which blood and water flow in opposite directions. 3
4 Denticles Operculum Lateral Line Ampullae of Lorenzini Swim Bladder Matching Covering over the gills Sense vibrations in water Detect EM fields Adjust buoyancy Reduce hydrodynamic drag
5 Denticles Operculum Lateral Line Ampullae of Lorenzini Swim Bladder Matching Covering over the gills Sense vibrations in water Detect EM fields Adjust buoyancy Reduce hydrodynamic drag
6 Compare & contrast the three birthing methods found in vertebrates
7 Oviparous – lay eggs that hatch outside the body Ovoviviparous – allow eggs to hatch inside the body and then young are birthed alive Viviparous – mother directly nourishes the young which are then born alive
8 Name and describe the three types of caudal fins that may be found in fish
22 What are two differences between the circulatory systems of fish & amphibians?
23 Fish – 2-chambered heart and a single-circuit system Amphibians – 3-chambered heart and a dual-circuit system
24 What is the name for an amphibian’s ability to breathe through its skin and why does this cause amphibians to be more susceptible to environmental toxins?
25 Cutaneous Respiration Capillaries close to the skin surface allow toxins to absorb into the blood stream along with gasses
26 Define the following terms: Paedomorphosis Amplexus
27 Paedomorphosis – the retention of juvenile traits in the adult form Amplexus – frog reproduction strategy in which the male mounts the female, squeezes out her eggs, and then sprays them with sperm
32 Describe the difference between the skin of frogs versus toads and how the skin relates to the lungs.
33 Frog skin is wetter and smoother than toad skin. This is because frogs live in wetter environments and rely more on cutaneous respiration than toads. Toads have better lungs and are thus not as reliant on their skin for gas exchange
34 What is the name of the first transitional animal that was able to spend any real time on land thus linking the fish and amphibian lines?