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Section 1 Quiz 1. What is the hijra? 2. Who was Muhammad? 3. Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic? 4. What is the Islamic holy text, or holy book called?

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1 Quiz 1. What is the hijra? 2. Who was Muhammad? 3. Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic? 4. What is the Islamic holy text, or holy book called?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1 Quiz 1. What is the hijra? 2. Who was Muhammad? 3. Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic? 4. What is the Islamic holy text, or holy book called? 5. Define jihad.

2 SSWH5 The student will trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600 CE and 1300 CE. a. Explain the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire. b. Identify the Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe, and Africa and assess the economic impact of this trade. c. Explain the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims. d. Identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in medicine (Ibn Sina) and geography (Ibn Battuta). e. Describe the impact of the Crusades on both the Islamic World and Europe. (media center on Thursday) f. Analyze the relationship between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

3 EQ: What are some characteristics of Islam?

4 Arabian Peninsula Mostly desert Mostly desert Occupied by Bedouins Occupied by Bedouins Mecca was central trading city Mecca was central trading city

5 Muhammad the Prophet Read p. 252 Read p. 252 Married rich widow 15 years older than him Married rich widow 15 years older than him Went to cave and heard Allah’s voice Went to cave and heard Allah’s voice Was illiterate – family members wrote down his revelations Was illiterate – family members wrote down his revelations Began teaching what he heard Began teaching what he heard Travelled to Mecca and destroyed the idols Travelled to Mecca and destroyed the idols Before Islam, religions of the Arabian Peninsula were polytheistic.

6 Islam - Doctrine Five pillars, or tenets Five pillars, or tenets 1. Declaration of Faith 2. Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca 3. Tithe – 2% of income 4. Jihad – spiritual struggle 5. Hajj – to Mecca Quran, also spelled Koran, is main holy book Quran, also spelled Koran, is main holy book Believe Jesus was prophet but not God Believe Jesus was prophet but not God Holy day is on Friday – like Jewish Sabbath Holy day is on Friday – like Jewish Sabbath Call to Prayer Call to Prayer

7 Women and Islam Sharia – Islamic law Sharia – Islamic law Quran treats men and women with equality Quran treats men and women with equality In practice, similar to how women were viewed according to Christianity, some Muslim women were highly subjugated, or inferior to men, in ancient Islamic societies In practice, similar to how women were viewed according to Christianity, some Muslim women were highly subjugated, or inferior to men, in ancient Islamic societies

8 Islamic Schism “Major sects of Islam” – Video Sunnis – Sunnis – Shiites – Shiites – Sufis/Dervishes - Sufis/Dervishes - Black Muslims – Black Muslims – What are the reasons for the schism, or split?

9 Islamic Schism Muhammad died, he had no sons Muhammad died, he had no sons Leaders argue over who should take over as caliph Leaders argue over who should take over as caliph Sunnis say the leader should be elected Sunnis say the leader should be elected Shiites say the leader should be a blood relation of Muhammad Shiites say the leader should be a blood relation of Muhammad This led to religious wars between the two This led to religious wars between the two

10 Spread of Islam – Umayyads A.D. Muhammad dies – 632 A.D. Muhammad dies – 632 A.D. 1 st caliph, Abu Baker, spreads Islam through series of wars 1 st caliph, Abu Baker, spreads Islam through series of wars First four caliphs conquered Byzantine and Persian territory First four caliphs conquered Byzantine and Persian territory Tolerant conquerors – didn’t force conversion Tolerant conquerors – didn’t force conversion Conquer Modern day Spain Conquer Modern day Spain Muhammad’s caliphate Later Umayyad caliphate rulers

11 Spread of Islam – Abbasids A.D. A new family of Sunni leaders take power A new family of Sunni leaders take power Baghdad becomes their powerful Arab capital Baghdad becomes their powerful Arab capital This is the Golden Age This is the Golden Age Arabs invent Algebra, advances in mathematics and medicine Arabs invent Algebra, advances in mathematics and medicine

12 Effects of Islamic Empires Create learning centers in Cairo, Cordoba Spain, and Baghdad Create learning centers in Cairo, Cordoba Spain, and Baghdad Trade network closely links Europe and the Arab world Trade network closely links Europe and the Arab world While Europe was in Dark Ages, preserved learning from Ancient Greeks and Romans While Europe was in Dark Ages, preserved learning from Ancient Greeks and Romans

13 Decline of Islamic Empires 850 A.D. Ottoman Turks conquer most of the Byzantine empire 850 A.D. Ottoman Turks conquer most of the Byzantine empire 1099 A.D. Christians attack Jerusalem in the Crusades – attacks lasted nearly 200 years 1099 A.D. Christians attack Jerusalem in the Crusades – attacks lasted nearly 200 years 1216 A.D. Genghis Khan leading the Mongols attacks 1216 A.D. Genghis Khan leading the Mongols attacks

14 Based on your class notes and the video, fill out this chart Based on your class notes and the video, fill out this chart SIMILARITIES of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism DIFFERENCES of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism 1.Monotheistic1. Muslims believe all 3 have same god, Jews and Christians don’t 2. All offer afterlife; humans come from Adam and Eve 2. They exclude each other as paths to the afterlife/heaven 3. All believe in Old Testament characters; Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Noah, Moses 3. jewish- Isaac’s ancestors are gods chosen; Muslim-Ishmael’s ancestors are chosen 4. All believe Jesus existed4. Christians=jesus is god, Jews=jesus was a man, Muslims=jesus was a prophet 5. All started in Middle East; Jerusalem is holy city 5. Christianity=isreal, Judaism=Mesopotamia, Islam=Arabian peninsula 6. All emphasize peace; all have used their religion to make war 6. Bible, Koran, Torah

15 Spice Trade – what were spices back then? Muslims control the spice trade for 400 years Muslims control the spice trade for 400 years Began to trade directly in spices Began to trade directly in spices Took Islam with them Took Islam with them

16 Islamic Scholars Ibn Sana – 900 AD Ibn Sana – 900 AD - Child genius - Studied Aristotle - By 18, was prominent doctor - Wrote more than 40 books describing diseases and discussing philosophy Ibn Battuta – 1330 AD Ibn Battuta – 1330 AD - travelled from Europe to Asia - took detailed journals - made maps of his travels - gives modern historians a picture of what life was like at that time

17 Pop Quiz Write an 8-sentence paragraph, based on your assignment yesterday and the notes we’ve taken, that explains what the Crusades were, why they were undertaken, who participated in them, when they occurred, and how they affected the caliphate (Islamic Empire). Make sure you include a sentence about Salah Al- Din (Saladin) and his role in the Crusades. Write an 8-sentence paragraph, based on your assignment yesterday and the notes we’ve taken, that explains what the Crusades were, why they were undertaken, who participated in them, when they occurred, and how they affected the caliphate (Islamic Empire). Make sure you include a sentence about Salah Al- Din (Saladin) and his role in the Crusades. 1 pt of extra credit if you explain what the word crusades means or where the word comes from. 1 pt of extra credit if you explain what the word crusades means or where the word comes from.

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19 Dehli Sultanate, Mughals (Mongols), and Ottomans Delhi Sultanate – 200 years Defeated Hindus with better weapons in 1206 A.D. -used better arrows and horses instead of elephants -Hindu princes couldn’t unite Tamarlane defeats the Delhi Sultanate Mughals – 300 years Mongolian descendants who became Muslim Mongolian descendants who became Muslim Babur – first mughal leader Babur – first mughal leader Akbar (The Great) Akbar (The Great) - Strong central govt. - Modernized army - Promoted religious harmony Delhi Empire Mughal Empire

20 Taj Mahal – NOT a mosque It’s a burial tomb. It’s a burial tomb. Built by Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, for his favorite wife. Built by Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, for his favorite wife. Built in Persian style Built in Persian style

21 Ottoman Empire – Islamic Turks Suleiman “The Lawgiver” Suleiman “The Lawgiver” - Ottoman ruler during “Golden Age” - modernized army - at height, ruled same area as Roman Empire Janissaries – elite fighting force Janissaries – elite fighting force Society organized into 4 classes Society organized into 4 classes - intellectuals - business men - warriors- farmers

22 Christianity, Islam, and Judaism Circle Maps RELIGION Requirements: 3 circles One for each religion 7 points of information in circle 7 points of information in circle 2 points of info in frame of reference 2 points of info in frame of reference Founder 2. Founder 5.Area of the world where the religion originated or began 6. How the religion says women should be treated. 1.Holy text 3. & 4. Two beliefs about the way people should behave or act FRAME OF REFERENECE 1. What do you think about the religion? 2. What do you think other religions say or believe about it? 7. List major sects or denominations Christianity – p Islam – p Judaism – p If believers of a religion were or are persecuted, why do you think that is?

23 CNN Quiz 1. T or F: We are OFFICIALLY in a recession? 2. What is a recession? 3. What device are airports and border customs using to improve security? 4. Which service industries are witnessing an upswing in business despite the economic slow down?

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25 Arabian Peninsula Mostly desert Mostly desert Occupied by Bedouins Occupied by Bedouins Mecca was central city Mecca was central city

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28 RELIGION similarity difference difference difference difference difference difference BE SPECIFIC! BE SPECIFIC!

29 Vocabulary Define: Caliph Caliph Minaret Minaret Muezzin Muezzin Sultan Sultan

30 NPR - Sharia NPR - Sharia

31 Islamic Art Early Period Late Period Middle Period

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33 Music “Oud” stringed instrument “Oud” stringed instrument Became the “lute” in Spain Became the “lute” in Spain The Lute became the modern guitar The Lute became the modern guitar

34 Islamic Literature Spoken word – Bedouins didn’t write their poetry down – memorized Spoken word – Bedouins didn’t write their poetry down – memorized Extemporaneous – improvised Extemporaneous – improvised Rhymed and free verse Rhymed and free verse 1,001 Arabian Nights - Scheherazade – fictitious person 1,001 Arabian Nights - Scheherazade – fictitious person

35 Tarafah ibn Al-Abd - 800’s A.D. Famous Islamic Poet “A young gazelle there is in the tribe, dark-lipped, fruit-shaking, flaunting a double necklace of pearls and topazes, “A young gazelle there is in the tribe, dark-lipped, fruit-shaking, flaunting a double necklace of pearls and topazes, holding aloof, with the herd grazing in the lush thicket, nibbling the tips of the arak-fruit, wrapped in her cloak. holding aloof, with the herd grazing in the lush thicket, nibbling the tips of the arak-fruit, wrapped in her cloak. Her dark lips part in a smile, teeth like a chamomile on a moist hillock shining amid the virgin sands, Her dark lips part in a smile, teeth like a chamomile on a moist hillock shining amid the virgin sands, whitened as it were by the sun's rays, all but her gums that are smeared with colyrium - she gnaws not against them; whitened as it were by the sun's rays, all but her gums that are smeared with colyrium - she gnaws not against them; a face as though the sun had loosed his mantle upon it, pure of hue, with not a wrinkle to mar it.” a face as though the sun had loosed his mantle upon it, pure of hue, with not a wrinkle to mar it.”

36 Compare Poetry Compare Poetry Shakespeare 1600’s: Shakespeare 1600’s: “My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun ; Coral is far more red than her lips' red. I have seen roses, damask'd red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks “ Yazid 800’s: Yazid 800’s: “She is radiant. The sun would be ashamed to rise again on anyone if it only saw her… Pearls rained down from her Narcissus eyes, the roses of her cheeks and her wine-red lips.”

37 Vocab Quiz Define the following terms: 1. Sultanate 2. Caste 3. Rajah 4. Who were the Delhi sultans? 5. Who were the Mughals?

38 Rajah Rajah Sultanate Sultanate Minaret Minaret Caste Caste Shah Shah Word Search Define the following terms: Ch. 11

39 Review Christians worship in a ______. Christians worship in a ______. Muslims worship in a ______. Muslims worship in a ______. Jews worship in a _______. Jews worship in a _______. What is Sharia? What does it deal with today? What is Sharia? What does it deal with today? What are the five pillars of Islam? What are the five pillars of Islam? Why are people living in North Africa Muslims today? Why are people living in North Africa Muslims today? T or F: Muhammad is a Muslim God. T or F: Muhammad is a Muslim God. T or F: The Quran states women are spiritually equal to men. T or F: The Quran states women are spiritually equal to men. T or F: The Delhi sultanate was an empire. T or F: The Delhi sultanate was an empire.

40 Christian Holy Wars Occurred because Ottomans asked for Europeans help against the Seljuks Occurred because Ottomans asked for Europeans help against the Seljuks Then Christians attacked Muslims, Jews, Pagan Slavs, and Ottomans Pilgrims not crusaders Then Christians attacked Muslims, Jews, Pagan Slavs, and Ottomans Pilgrims not crusaders Commanded by the Pope Commanded by the Pope Took place over 200 years Took place over 200 years Conquered Palestine and Jerusalem Conquered Palestine and Jerusalem

41 CNN News/Notes Quiz – Open-Note 1. Describe the public option (what is the public option we keep hearing about in the news? 2. What illness is now considered a world-wide pandemic? 3. How are vaccines made? 4. What new technique have some scientists come up with to make vaccines that is not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration? 5. In what U.S. territory did a wild fire break out? 6. One man makes about $25,000 extra a year selling what baseball supply item? 7. The Tea Party protests, of the Republican party, are protesting what current bill in discussion in Congress? 8. Why is the Army’s new Drill Sergeant school commandant unique? 9. In St. Paul, Minnesota, what new college degree can you get? 10. What animal turned out to be an excellent skate-boarder? 11. Why did President Obama declare the H1N1 virus to be a national emergency even thought lots of people aren’t dying from it? 12. Iran says it’s nuclear program is not to make bombs but to create what?


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