Presentation on theme: "Animal Kingdom Muticellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Approximately 35 phyla Most phyla cells are organized into tissues that make up organs. Most reproduce."— Presentation transcript:
Animal Kingdom Muticellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Approximately 35 phyla Most phyla cells are organized into tissues that make up organs. Most reproduce sexually. Motile sperm have flagella Nonmotile egg is much larger than sperm.
Animal Body Structures The term Symmetry refers to a consistent overall pattern of a structure. Asymmetrical – Having no distinctive body shape. Radial Symmetry - Similar part branch out in all directions from a central line. Bilateral Symmetry – Having two similar halves on either side of a central plane (mirror images of each side) Asymmetrical
Body Cavities of Animals Coelom- body cavity Acoelomate-not having a body cavity Pseudocoelomate-not a true body cavity. Coelomate-animal having a true body cavities
Animals and their body cavity
Invertebrates Animals that do not have a backbone. Invertebrates constitute the greatest number of animal species. Invertebrates are the most of the individual animals alive today
Porifera (Sponges) 8000 species Very porous tissue Filter feeders Contain spicules (skeleton) & spongin (soft tissue). Sessil adults (nonmotile), motile larva Asymmetrical body plan
Sponges of the Ocean Giant Barrel Sponge Venus flower basket Vase sponge Yellow sponge
Cnidaria (Coelenterates, means “hollow gut”) 9500 species Two body forms - medusa: bell shape - polyp: vase shape Have stinging cells called cnidocyts Examples include: jellyfish, coral, hydra, sea anemone, sea fan.
Cnidarians of the Ocean Jellyfish Coral Sea anemone Hydra Jellyfish Brain Coral
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 20,000 species Flat bodies and unsegmented Mostly parasitic, some free living Bilateral symmetry Acoelomates no body cavity Parastic - tapeworm -blood fluke -sheep liver fluke -beef fluke Free-living -planarians -marine flatworm
Platyhelminthes of the World Marine flatworm Blood fluke Tapeworm Planarian
Nematoda (Roundworms) 80,000 Unsegmented Many parasitic Bilateral symmetry Example include: -pinworm -hookworm -heartworm -Trichinella (porkworm) -Ascaris
Nematoda’s of the World Heartworm of a dog Hookworm Trichinella (porkworm) Ascaris
Annelida (segmented worms) 12,000 species Repeating body segments Bristles in most species. Bilateral symmetry Examples include: -earthworm -leeches -sandworms -clamworms -fanworms -Christmas tree worm
Annelida’s of the world Clamworm leech Christmas Tree Worm
Mollusca (soft-bodied invertebrates) 2 nd largest group of invertebrates and of all other animals 100,000 species All have a mantle. Some have a shell covering the soft body.
Arthropoda (jointed legs) Largest phylum of the animal kingdom (1 million species) Has a exoskeleton Many species undergo metamorphosis (complete or incomplete metamorphosis)
Classes of Arthropods Insecta (6 legs) -Largest class (800,000 species) include: fly, beetles, bee, grasshopper, moths, & butterflies Arachinids (8 legs) include: spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, & horseshoe crabs Crustaceans (10 or more legs) include: lobsters, crabs, crayfish shrimp, barnacles Chilopoda (1pair of legs per segment) flat body, carnivorous include: centipeds Diplopoda (2 pair of legs per segment) round body, herbivorous include: millipeds
Insects and Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis -process an insect passes through three separate stages of growth, as larva, pupa, and adult.
Incomplete Metamorphosis A life cycle of certain insects, such as crickets and grasshoppers, characterized by the absence of a pupa stage between the nymph and adult stage.
Insecta Unicorn Beetle Hercules Beetle Insects have been present for about 350 million years, and humans for only 130,000 years. The oldest known fossil of an insect dates back 400 million years and is a springtail Praying Mantis
Arachnids Brown Recluse “fiddleback” Black widow Scorpion Tick Mite Tarantula
Crustaceans Lobster Crayfish or “crawdads” Barnacles Water fleas or Daphnia Shrimp Snow Crab
Chilopoda (Centipedes) Australian centipedeRedheaded Centipede Amazon Giant Centipede Chinese Redheaded Centipede
Diplopoda (millipede) African Giant Black Millipede
Echinodermata (spiny-skinned) 6000 species Radial Symmetry Water vascular system for movement Usually have a five- part body plan Examples include: Starfish (sea stars) Sea Urchin Sand dollars Sea cucumbers Brittle star
Echinoderms Brittle star Starfish Sand Dollar Sea Urchin Sea cucumber Feather Star
Starfish and Clams Regeneration Tube feet Eating a Clam Water vascular system
Animal (Chordates) pharyngeal slits - a series of openings that connect the inside of the throat to the outside of the "neck". These are often, but not always, used as gills. post-anal tail - an extension of the body past the anal opening. dorsal nerve cord - a bundle of nerve fibers which runs down the "back". It connects the brain with the lateral muscles and other organs. notochord - cartilaginous rod running underneath, and supporting, the nerve cord.
Chordates Subphylums - Cephalochordata *lancelets -Urochordata *tunicate -Vertebrata *all animals with a backbone lancelet Tunicate “Sea Squirt” Larva Adult
Vertebrates Animals with an internal skeleton made of bone are called vertebrates.(Some are made of cartilage) Vertebrates include: primates, such as humans and monkeys; amphibians; reptiles; birds; and, fish Although vertebrates represent only a very small percentage of all animals, their size and mobility often allow them to dominate their environment.
Classes of Vertebrates Agnatha (Sucker fish) -jawless -eel-like -scale less -skeleton made of cartilage -most lamprey are parasitic Examples include: -hagfish -lamprey
Agantha Mouth of lamprey Hagfish
Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish) Hinged jaws Paired fins Skeleton made entirely of cartilage They have placoid scales (sharks-rough teeth-like scales) Examples include: –Sharks –Rays –Skates –sawfish
Chondrichthyes Great White Shark Sawfish Stingray Skate Hammerhead shark
Osteichthyes (bony fish) Hinged jaws Paired fins Fish with skeleton made entirely of bone Largest class of vertebrates (23,500) 3 main groups -Lobe-finned fish: coelacanths -Lung-fish: lungfish -Ray-finned fish: bass, perch, eel, gar, catfish, sea horse, flounder & marlin
Lobe-finned fish (Coelacanths)
Ray-finned fish Alligator gar Largemouth bass 180 lbs Seahorse flounder
More Ray-finned fish Clown fish Puffer fish Morey Eel Archer fish
Ray-finned fish Crocodile fish Paddlefish Blue Marlin Crappie
Amphibian (both life or double life) Live part of its life on land and part in the water. Some may live in the water during the larva stage than move to land, but only return to the water for reproduction. Moist, smooth skin 3 main groups: –Urodela (visible tail) salmander, mudpuppy, siren, & newts. –Anura (without tail) frogs and toads –Apoda (no legs) caecilian
Aves (birds) Aves comes from the word meaning aviation Only animal to have feathers –Down feathers (insulation) –Contour feathers (flight) Have hollow bones (flight) Have a syrinx (sound) Descendents of reptiles 9000 species
Aves (birds) Scissortail Flycatcher Emu Hummingbird Penguin Bald Eagle California Condor
Mammalia (Mammals) Body covered with hair, fur, subcutaneous fat 4600 species Milk produced in mammary glands Respiration with the use of a diaphragm (muscular sheet that lies between the lungs and abdominal area) Orders Include: -Monotremes (egg laying mammals) -Duck-billed platypus, Spiny anteater (short beaked echidna) -Marsupials (pouched mammals) -Opossum, kangaroo, koala bear
More Mammals Placentals –Young develop entirely in the mothers uterus –Young nourished through the placenta via the umbilical cord –Largest group of mammals (4500)