Presentation on theme: "Historical Cartography of Rio de Janeiro: Spatial and Temporal Reconstitution of Downtown Douglas Corbari Corrêa, DSc Brazilian Army – Geographic Service."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Cartography of Rio de Janeiro: Spatial and Temporal Reconstitution of Downtown Douglas Corbari Corrêa, DSc Brazilian Army – Geographic Service – 5 th DL Paulo Márcio Leal de Menezes, DSc UFRJ – Geography Department
2 Summary Introduction Cartography and Rio de Janeiro City Downtown Rio Methodological Procedures Conclusion
3 Introduction Past and Present: streets of downtown Observation through the maps Center of the City of Rio de Janeiro: – transformations – more then 400 years – heart of the city – maps from 1700 until 2000
4 Goals To build maps of comparison of historical maps of Downtown Rio dating from different and significant periods, considering the features corresponding to the streets and shoreline; and To propose a methodology for registration of those maps in pairs, even when they do not have well defined scale, projection or coordinates.
5 Old maps x historical maps Foundation of the city: 1565 Initial selection of maps: – Historical highlights – Cartographical highlights Cartography and Rio de Janeiro City
6 André Thevet Chart (1560) French contribution
7 Jacques de Vaulx Chart (1579) French contribution First plan of the city First economic and topographic map of ‘Carioca’ land
8 Chart of Rio de Janeiro, by Luiz Teixeira (1586) First specialized Portugese chart of Guanabara region Beginning of the expansion of the city toward the meadow, between Castelo and São Bento hills.
9 Reys-Boeck Chart (1624) Dutch activity Expansion through the meadow among Castelo, São Bento, Conceição and Santo Antônio hills.
10 Albernaz I Chart (1626) Strong iconographic representation
11 Appearance of Rio de Janeiro, by Albernaz II (1666) Incorrect geometry Ocupation of the city
12 18 th Century: – Scientific mapping – Astronomy and surveying – Orthogonal projection Cartography and Rio de Janeiro City
13 Plan of the city of Rio de Janeiro, by Roscio (1769) Trench Orthogonal projection
14 Plan of the city, by order of the Regent Prince (1812) Influence of the arrival of the royal family.
15 Map of Downtown Rio (1838) Shadow techniques Geometric details
16 Plan of Urban Improvements of Mayor Pereira Passos (1906) Reform of Mayor Pereira Passos Central Avenue
17 Chart of Rio de Janeiro, by Military Geographic Service (1922) Seven colours, contour lines Austrian Cartographic Mission Independence centenary
18 Topographic Chart, by DSG (1987) Legend, projection, coordinates,... Expansion of the city
19 Ortophoto of Downtown Rio (East Side). Date of flight: Source: IPP (2008).
20 Ortophoto of Downtown Rio (West Side). Date of flight: Source: IPP (2008).
21 Downtown Rio The Center of Rio or Downtown Rio was not always where it is today – Sugar Loaf/Cara de Cão Hill; Carioca River; Castelo Hill; plain among the hills Castelo, São Bento, Conceição and Santo Antônio – Anchorage; proximity to water; security/defense – Center as a pole, which attracts political, social and economical activities. Description and delimitation of the center: decree – July 23 rd 1981 The Center of Rio went through many transformations in its landscape, involving construction and demolition over time
22 Downtown Rio (Centro) and Adjacent Neighborhoods Source: Adapted from IPP (2008) Glória Santa Teresa Catumbi Estácio Cidade Nova Santo Cristo Gamboa Saúde CENTRO
23 Construction / Demolition – Dinamism – Relief / Urban Network – Reasons: Air, hygiene, sanitary, esthetic, modernity, economical interests Examples: – Construction of Central Avenue (1905) – Demolition of Castelo Hill (1922) – Construction of Presidente Vargas Avenue (1944) Downtown Rio
24 Demolition of Castelo Hill. Source: Arquivo da Cidade (2002)
25 Flowchart of Stages Methodological Procedures
27 Georeferencing – Afine x Adjust Comparison of Maps – Comparison in pairs between vectorial subsequent maps, from the most recent to the oldest one. – Historical Sync Analysis Methodological Procedures
31 Conclusion Quality concerning resolution in scaning process – Control points identification – Vectorial digitalization French invasions, construction of fortifications, royal family in Brazil, construction of avenues, and demolition of Castelo Hill,... Chalenges: scale, coordinates system, projection, low resolution Synthesis Maps – Spatial-temporal evolution can be reconstituted – Planning policy – Expasion of the urban network – High density at Downtown – Extension of shoreline, and, then, its stagnation