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Describing and Identifying Relative Positions & Locations of Structures Identifying relative positions of structures can be difficult!

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Presentation on theme: "Describing and Identifying Relative Positions & Locations of Structures Identifying relative positions of structures can be difficult!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Describing and Identifying Relative Positions & Locations of Structures Identifying relative positions of structures can be difficult!

2 Overview Anatomical Position Terms of Relationship/Comparison Joints –Types –Names –Location –Movements Planes of Motion Axis of Rotation Degrees of Freedom

3 Anatomical Position A position used as a reference when describing parts of the body in relation to each other Used in conjunction with terms of relationship, terms of comparison, and terms of movement Allows for a standard way of documenting where one part of the body is in relation to another, regardless of whether the body is standing, lying down, or in any other position

4 Anatomical Position Anatomical Position: - Standing erect -Eyes and toes pointing forward -Feet together with arms by the side -Palms of the hand are facing up -Thumbs pointed out (laterally)

5 Terms of Relationship/Comparison Superior (cranial): Above, or towards the top of the body Inferior (caudal): Below, or towards the bottom of the body Anterior: Towards the front of the body Posterior: Towards the back of the body Medial: Towards the center of midline of the body Lateral: Towards the outside, or away from the midline of the body Proximal: Nearer to the point of origin of a muscle Distal: Further from the point of origin of a muscle

6 Terms of relationship/Comparison Superior (cranial) Proximal Distal Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Posterior Anterior Inferior

7 Terms of Relationship/Comparison Superficial: toward or at the body surface Deep: away from the body surface; more internal

8 Terms of Relationship/Comparison Hand Foot Dorsum (Dorsal Surface) Palm (Palmar Surface) Dorsum (Dorsal Surface) Sole (Plantar Surface)

9 Terms of Relationship/Comparison Prone: face downward; stomach lying Supine: lying on the back; face upward

10 Terms of Laterality Unilateral: One Side Bilateral: Two Sides Ipsilateral: Same Side of Body Contralateral: Opposite Side of Body

11 1.The axis is ________________ to the atlas 2.The radius is ________________ to the ulna 3.The clavicle is _____________ to the scapula 4.The carpals are _____________ to the metacarpals 5.False ribs are _______________ to T8-T10 6.The ilium is ______________ to the ischium 7.The fibula is ________________ to the tibia 8.The hyoid is ___________________ to the mandible 9.A barbell chest press is performed ________

12 10. The femoral condyles are _____________ to the tibial tuberosity 11. The foramen magnum is ____________ to the spinous process 12. The skin is __________________ to the heart 13. Push-ups are performed ______________ 14. The greater trochanter of the femur is ________________ to the pelvic crest 15. Demonstrate the following exercises: –Unilateral Leg Curl –Bilateral Overhead Shoulder Press –Ipsilateral Squat and Biceps Curl –Contralateral Forward Lunge and Lateral Shoulder Raise

13 Joints = Articulation Articulation: two or more bones attach Two Fundamental Functions of Joints: –Allow the skeleton to have mobility –Hold the skeleton together

14 Classification of Joints Functional Classification: –Based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint –Three Functional Classifications: Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis Structural Classification: –Based on the material binding or holding the bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present –Three Structural Classifications: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

15 Functional Classification of Joints Arthroses: joint Synarthroses –Immovable joints –Fibrous joints: sutures in the skull Amphiarthroses –Slightly movable joints –Cartilaginous joints: ribs Diarthroses –Freely movable joint –Synovial joints: shoulder

16 Structural Classification of Joints Fibrous: –The bones are joined by fibrous tissues –No joint cavity –Most are immovable (synarthroses) –Three Types: Suture Syndesmosis Gomphosis

17 Suture Sutures occur only between the bones of the skull Wavy articulating edges are interlocked Hold bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth

18 Syndesmosis Bones are connected by a ligament Movement varies from immovable to variably movable Examples include the connection between: –Radius and Ulna –Tibia and Fibula

19 Gomphosis The only example is the articulation of a tooth –Tooth attaches to the bony socket

20 Cartilaginous Joints Articulating bones are joined by cartilage Slightly movable or immovable No joint cavity Examples- epiphyseal plates of long bones, joints between costal cartilage of first rib and manubrium, intervetebral joints, and pubic symphysis

21 Cartilaginous Joints

22 Synovial Joints Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity containing fluid All are freely movable; diarthroses Examples: all limb joints and most joints of the body

23 Synovial Joints: Distinguishing Features Articular Cartilage: tough, rubbery tissue that forms the surface of bones within joints Synovial Fluid: a very slippery, oil-like substance which is produced by the body to lubricate the joints and tendon. Comparable to an ice skate on ice Joint Cavity: a space containing a small amount of fluid

24 Synovial Joints: Distinguishing Features Articular Capsule: it keeps synovial fluid from leaking out the joint Reinforcing Ligaments: prevent separation of joints and restrict joint movement Bursa: A fluid-containing sac near a joint that reduces friction between a tendon and a bone, or between a bone and skin during movement Tendons: Tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. –The rotator cuff tendons are a group of tendons that connect the deepest layer of muscles to the humerus

25 General Structure of a Synovial Joint

26

27 Types of Synovial Joints Six Major Categories: –Ball and Socket –Condyloid –Saddle –Pivot –Hinge –Gliding

28 Ball and Socket Joint A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another Examples: Shoulder and Hip

29 Condyloid Joint Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another Both articular surfaces are oval Examples: Wrist, Knuckles of Fingers and Toes

30 Saddle Joint Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface Example: Knuckle of Thumb

31 Pivot Joint Rounded end of one bone protrudes into “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone or ligaments of another bone Examples: Atlas and Axis and Radius and Ulna

32 Hinge Joint Cylindrical projection of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another Resembles action of a hinge Examples: Elbow, Ankle, Knee, Fingers and Toes

33 Gliding Joint Articular surfaces are essentially flat Allow only slipping or gliding movements Examples: Vertebrae, Carpals in the Wrist, and Tarsals in the Ankle

34 Synovial Joint Stability Stability is determined by: –The Shape of Articular surfaces – determines what movements are possible –The Number and Position of Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion – Muscle Tone – most important – tendons that cross joints act as stabilizing factors and are kept tight by muscle tone

35 Body Movement Body movement occurs when muscles contract across joints and their insertion moves toward their origin Muscle origin: muscle attached to the immovable or less movable bone Muscle insertion: muscle attached to the movable bone Kinesiology: study of the movement of body parts

36 General Types of Synovial Joint Movement Angular Gliding Rotation Special

37 Angular Movement Change of angle between bones Movements that produce an increase or decrease in the angle between bones and include: –Flexion –Extension –Abduction –Adduction –Lateral Flexion –Plantarflexion –Dorsiflexion

38 Angular Movement Terminology Flexion –Bending movement that decreases the angle of a joint –biceps curl, leg curl, crunch, shoulder raise Extension –Bending movement that increases the angle of a joint –squat, leg press, triceps press down

39 Angular Movement Terminology Lateral Flexion –Lateral movement away from the midline of the body –Moving the spine to the side (left or right) –Moving the neck toward the shoulder Reduction –Return from the anatomical position from lateral movement

40 Angular Movement Terminology Abduction –Movement of limb away from midline of body –Lateral DB raise, standing BB shoulder press Adduction –Movement of limb toward body midline of body –Lat pull-down, pull-up Circumduction –Moving limb so that it describes a cone in space –Combination of flexion, abduction, extension and adduction in succession

41 Angular Movement Terminology Horizontal Adduction –Movement of the humerus or femur across the midline of the body –Examples: cable fly, DB chest press, hip adductor machine, push-up Horizontal Abduction –Movement of the humerus or femur away from the midline of the body –Examples: seated row, reverse cable fly, hip abductor machine

42 Rotation The turning of a bone around its own vertical axis Examples: –Between C1 and C2 vertebrae –Hip and Shoulder joints –Forearm Joint

43 Rotation Terminology Medial Rotation (internal rotation): –Rotation of the limb where the anterior surface of the limb moves medially Lateral Rotation (external rotation): –Rotation of the limb where the anterior surface of the limb moves laterally

44 Gliding Movement Terminology One flat bone surface glides or slips over another bone (back-and-forth, side-to-side) Wrist Abduction (radial deviation): –Laterally flexing the wrist toward the thumb Wrist Adduction (ulnar deviation): –Laterally flexing the wrist toward the pinky Wrist Adduction Wrist Abduction

45 Special Movements Supination and Pronation Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion Inversion and Eversion Protraction and Retraction Elevation and Depression Opposition

46 Forearm Supination and Pronation Supination: laterally rotating the forearm and hand so that the palm faces forward or upward (radius lies parallel to the ulna) Pronation: medially rotating the forearm and hand so that the palm faces downward

47 Ankle Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion Dorsiflexion: movement of the ankle which decreases the angle between the foot and the leg –Pointing the toes up Plantarflexion: movement of the ankle which increases the angle between the foot and the leg –Pointing the toes down Examples: walking, biking, calf raise, tapping your toes, jump rope

48 Ankle Inversion and Eversion Inversion: movement of the foot in which the sole turns toward the midline Eversion: movement of the foot in which the sole turns outward away from the midline Examples: soccer-style kick, ice-skating, roller blading, hockey

49 Protraction, Retraction, Elevation, and Depression

50 Opposition

51 Putting It All Together! C1 and C2 Spine Shoulder Elbow Forearm Wrist Hip Knee Ankle

52 C1 and Skull and C1 and C2 C1 and Skull: –Atlantooccipital Joint Type: Saddle Movements: Mainly limited nodding –Flexion –Extension C1 and C2: –Atlantoaxial Joint Type: Pivot Movements: Rotation

53 Name: –Intervertebral Joints Type: Fibrocartilaginous Movements (All but limited degrees): –Flexion –Extension –Lateral Flexion –Circumduction Vertebral Column

54 Shoulder Joint Glenohumeral Joint Type: Ball in Socket Movements: –Flexion –Extension –Abduction –Adduction –Horizontal Abduction –Horizontal Adduction –Medial Rotation –Lateral Rotation –Circumduction

55 Elbow Joint Humeroulnar Joint Type: Hinge Movements: –Flexion –Extension

56 Forearm Joint Radioulnar joint Type: Pivot Movements: –Supination –Pronation

57 Wrist Joint Radiocarpal Joint Type: Condyloid Movements: –Flexion –Extension –Abduction –Adduction –Cicumduction –Note: No true rotation at this joint.

58 Hip Joint Acetabulofemoral Joint Type: Ball and Socket Movements: –Flexion –Extension –Abduction –Adduction –Horizontal Abduction –Horizontal Adduction –Medial Rotation –Lateral Rotation –Circumduction

59 Knee Joint Tibiofemoral Joint Type: Modified Hinge Movements: –Flexion –Extension

60 Ankle Joints Talocrural Joint Type: Hinge Movements: –Plantarflexion –Dorsiflexion Subtalar Joint Type: Gliding Movements: –Inversion –Eversion

61 Scapula Scapulothoracic Joint Movements: –Retraction (adduction): where the scapula moves towards the spine Seated Row –Protraction (abduction): where the scapula moves away from the spine Push-Up

62 Scapula Elevation: where the scapula moves upwards towards the ear Shoulder Shrug Depression: where the scapula moves downwards towards the hips Lat Pull-Down

63 Scapula Upward Rotation: where the scapula rotates clockwise approximately 30 degrees. (Elevation usually occurs with upward rotation) –DB Shoulder Press Downward Rotation: the movement of the scapula returning from the upward rotated position, where the humerus is brought back along side the body. (Depression usually occurs with downward rotation) –Lat pull-down

64 Planes of Motion A body plane is an imaginary flat surface that is used to define a particular area of anatomy. The anatomical planes are a universally used method describing human movement Movement occurs in 1 plane if you are moving parallel to that plane

65 Anatomical Planes Frontal Plane: divides the body into front and back halves Transverse Plane: divides the body into top and bottom halves Sagittal Plane: divides the body into right and left halves

66 Anatomical Planes

67 Sagital Plane Sagital Plane Divides the Body into Right and Left Halves. Movements Involve Flexion/Extension and Plantarflexion/Dorsiflexion Examples: –Bicep curls -Triceps Extension –Knee Extensions -Leg Curl –Abdominal Crunches -Back Extension –Running -Walking –Stair Climbing - Squats –Cycling –Calf Raises –Leg Press

68 Frontal Plane Frontal Plane Divides the Body into Front and Back Halves. Movements Involve Abduction/Adduction; Inversion/Eversion; Lateral Flexion; Wrist Abduction/Adduction; Scapular Elevation/Depression/Upward Rotation/Downward Rotation Examples: –Jumping Jacks - Shoulder Shrug –Pull Up (pronated grip) - Lateral Step-Up –Spinal Lateral Flexion - Overhead DB Shoulder Press -Side Lunges –Lateral DB Raise –Lat Pull Down (pronated grip)

69 Transverse Plane Transverse Plane Divides the Body Horizontally into Superior and Inferior Halves. Movements Involve Medial and Lateral Rotation; Circumduction; Supination/Pronation; Horizontal Abduction/Adduction; Scapular Retraction/Protraction Examples: –Cable Fly -Cable Chop –Pronation of hands –Supination of hands –Bench Press (pronated grip) –Sporting Activity Movements like Throwing –Reverse DB Fly –Seated Wide Row (pronated grip)

70 Axis of Rotation When analyzing movement think of an axis as a rod through a joint allowing rotation around it and perpendicular to the plane it is being passed Sagital plane has a medial-to-lateral axis perpendicular to the sagital plane Frontal plane has an anterior- posterior axis perpendicular to the frontal plane Transverse plane has a vertical axis perpendicular to the transverse plane

71 Axis of Rotation Uniaxial: –Movement in one plane –Hinge joint (humeroulnar) Biaxial: –Movement in two planes –Condyloid joint (radiocarpal) and Saddle joint (carpometacarpal) Multiaxial: –Movement in or around all three planes –Ball and socket joint (glenohumeral and femoracetabular)

72 Degrees of Freedom Degrees of Freedom: –Number of planes that any joint can move through simultaneously One DOF (degree of freedom): –Uniaxial joint. The elbow is an example because it can only flex and extend in the sagital plane.

73 Degrees of Freedom 2 DOF: –Biaxial joint like the wrist because it can flex and extend in the sagital plane and abduct and adduct in the frontal plane. 3 DOF: –Triaxial joint like the shoulder, spine and hip which can flex and extend in the sagital plane, abduct and adduct in the frontal plane and rotate in the transverse plane


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