Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Socialization and the Life Cycle Chapter Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Socialization and the Life Cycle Chapter Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum
Culture, Society, and Child Socialization What Is Socialization? –Through contact with others, infants gradually become self-aware, knowledgeable human beings, skilled in the ways of a given culture Perpetuates values, norms, and social practices of culture Connects generations to each other
Culture, Society, and Child Socialization “Unsocialized Children” –Wild boy of Aveyron and Genie are examples of unsocialized children Both retained “nonhuman” responses Neither displayed lasting viciousness Both acquired minimum level of human capabilities
Theories of Child Development G. H. Mead –Children develop as social beings by imitating actions of those around them –Individuals develop self-consciousness by learning to see themselves as others see them –Later, by entering into and learning rules of play in organized games, children come to understand the general values and moral rules of culture
Theories of Child Development Jean Piaget –Emphasized child’s active capability to make sense of the world –Stages of development: Sensorimotor stage Birth to age 2 Child learns by manipulating objects Explores physical environment; understands it has distinct and stable properties Learns to distinguish people from objects
Theories of Child Development Jean Piaget (cont) Preoperational stage Age 2 to 7 Master language Child is egocentric—unable to see the world from another’s point of view Concrete operational stage Age 7 to 11 Masters abstract, logical notions Much less egocentric
Theories of Child Development Jean Piaget (cont) Formal operational stage Age 11 to 15 Able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas Problem solve and understand trick questions Achieving this stage depends partly on schooling Not all adults reach this stage
Socialization through the Life Course What Are Agents of Socialization? –Agents of socialization are structured groups or contexts within which significant processes of socialization occur: Family Schools Peers Mass Media Work
Socialization through the Life Course The Family –Principal socializing agent during infancy –Family systems vary widely across cultures –In modern societies, social position is not inherited but the region and social class of family affects patterns of socialization
Socialization through the Life Course Schools –Children obey rules –Must accept authority of teachers –Reactions of teachers affect expectations children have of themselves –Peer groups often formed at school
Socialization through the Life Course Peer Relationships –Peer groups are increasingly important –Greatly influence gender socialization –Have significant effect beyond childhood
Socialization through the Life Course Mass Media –Can be both positive and negative –Violence is promulgated on television –Video games may deflect from school work or other activities, become refuge from disliked school environment –But may also hone skills relevant to education and wider participation in society that depends on electronic communication
Socialization through the Life Course Work –Important in all cultures –Only in industrial societies are worklife and homelife so separate –Can pose unfamiliar demands, calling for major adjustments in outlook or behavior
Socialization through the Life Course Social Roles and Identity –Through socialization individuals learn about social roles—socially defined expectations for a person in a given social position
Socialization through the Life Course Social Roles and Identity (cont) This process leads to the development of a social identity, the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual Social identity marks ways in which individuals are the same as others Self-identity refers to the process of self- development through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world Self-identity sets us apart as distinct individuals
Socialization through the Life Course Gender Socialization –Gender socialization begins as soon as an infant is born –Even parents who believe they treat children equally tend to produce different responses to boys and girls –Differences are reinforced by many cultural influences
Socialization through the Life Course The Debate about Gender Socialization –Freud: Children learning about gender differences based on the possession or absence of the penis A boy feels threatened by his father and sees them as a rival for his mother’s affection Gives up love for mother because he fears castration from father A girl suffers from “penis envy” Mother is devalued because she lacks a penis; girl takes on submissive role Major objections have been raised about Freud’s views
Socialization through the Life Course The Debate about Gender Socialization –Chodorow: Learning to feel male or female derives from infant’s attachment to parents at an early age Emphasizes mother rather than the father Girls remain closer to mother and develop sense of self that is more contiguous with others Boys have sharp break from mother and, as a result, are unskilled in relating closely to others Essentially reverses Freud’s emphasis Chodorow’s work has met with various criticisms, though her work remains important
Socialization through the Life Course The Debate about Gender Socialization –Gilligan Further developed Chodorow’s analysis, concentrating on images adult women and men have of themselves Women define themselves in terms of personal relationships and caring for others Qualities developed by women are devalued by men, whose focus is individual achievement
Socialization through the Life Cycle Socialization and the Life Course –Socialization continues throughout the life cycle –At each phase of life there are transitions to be made or crises to be overcome –Five stages of the life course are: Childhood Teenager Young adulthood Mature adulthood Old age
Socialization through the Life Cycle Socialization and the Life Course –Stages of human life course are both biological and social, influenced by cultural differences and material circumstances
Socialization through the Life Cycle Socialization and the Life Course –Life course has changed over time Concept of childhood and teenager didn’t exist until recently Young adulthood is increasingly about personal and sexual development Mature adulthood is more uncertain than in the past; the midlife crisis is real for many people While elders were accorded great respect in traditional societies, older people lack authority in industrialized societies
Review Questions 1. From a sociological perspective, what is the characteristic of human beings that most distinguishes us from other animals? a)Human beings go through a process of socialization, which begins in infancy. b)Human beings tend to pick mates for life, a practice that does not exist among any other animals. c)Human beings are aware that they have a distinct identity that is separate from others. d)Human beings have social roles, a concept that does not exist in the animal kingdom.
Review Questions 2. Which of the following types of games or playing is most likely to help children learn the values and morality that govern social life? a)Two five-year-old friends like to pretend that one of them is the mommy and the other the baby or child and they act out different everyday scenes or activities. b)A group of eight- to ten-year-olds organize regular games of capture the flag, taking turns being team captain and switching team members around from game to game. c)A group of teenagers goes regularly to a skate park to practice new moves and see what other skaters are trying out. d)Three-year-old twins want to help their parents cook dinner so they are given wooden spoons and bowls filled with “ingredients” to stir.
Review Questions 3. Which of the following statements is central to Jean Piaget’s ideas about child development? a)Children select and interpret what they see, hear, and feel. b)Each stage of development is focused on overcoming a conflict. c)Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli, and reinforcement. d)Children passively absorb information from their surroundings.
Review Questions 4. A/An _________ can be defined as a set of socially defined expectations for a person in a given social position. a)social identity b)social role c)life course d)status set
Review Questions 5. How are social identity and self-identity different? a)Self-identity is shaped more by individual agency and choice, while social identity is subject to the influence of a person’s social and cultural environment. b)Social identity is more likely to change over the course of one’s life while self-identity is more likely to remain static. c)Social identity can be multi-faceted while self-identity tends to develop around a single, dominant factor. d)A social identity emphasizes a person’s similarity to and connection with others, while self-identity demonstrates that a person is a distinct individual.
Review Questions 6. Who advanced the argument that male identity is marked most strongly by a rejection of closeness with the mother, which leads to feeling threatened by close emotional relationships later in life? a)Carol Gilligan b)June Statham c)Nancy Chodorow d)Lenore Weitzman
Review Questions 7. Which of the following life stages have emerged largely in connection with the development of modern societies? a)childhood b)adolescence c)mature adulthood d)Both A and B e)Both B and C f)Both A and C