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Core values in athletics Professor Gunnar Breivik Norwegian University of Sports.

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Presentation on theme: "Core values in athletics Professor Gunnar Breivik Norwegian University of Sports."— Presentation transcript:

1 Core values in athletics Professor Gunnar Breivik Norwegian University of Sports

2 Introduction Background - sport in a changing world What are the basic values in sport? Values in athletics compared with other sports - some empirical data The core values in athletics Athletics as a paradigm sport compared with other new paradigms - youth sports, extreme games

3 I Background Sport in a changing world

4 Development Unity of sport until the 1970s Elite sport becomes professional, commercial, new technology, sports as entertainment Postmodern trends, new activities, new values, subcultures and new contexts

5 Muscle and powerRisk sport Youth sport Elite sport Rehabilitation Jogging Aerobic, fitness Yoga, meditation General competitive sport Differentiation of physical activities and sports

6 Training and years of education Percent training 1-4 times a week

7 Training and economic income, age years

8 Percent of people who are involved in mass activities

9 Organizational contexts of activity

10 Motives for training

11 Sport and society interaction Marxist theories - sport as part of the superstructure, sport as lagging behind Sport as the perfect expression of the American capitalistic society - Harry Edwards Sport as a model for society - the idea of competition, fairness and rewards - von Krockow

12 Sport and society 1. Society and its values influence sports in good and in bad ways (External values) 2. Sport and its values influence society in good and in bad ways (Internal values) Society SportSociety 1 2

13 The individual and sport 1. Individuals choose sports with values they like (Active match person- environment) 2. Sport and its specific values influence involved persons (Passive match person -environment) IndividualSportIndividual 1 2

14 A dynamic view Sports are integrated in historical societies with certain practices and values Different sports attract and form different persons and build different subcultures in society There are differences in sport ethos between different sports, but also common elements

15 Theories - general views Inglehart - post-materialism Elias - quest for excitement Lasch - the culture of narcissism Bourdieu - social distinction Foucault - discipline Giddens - structuration marxist theories - hegemony

16 II What are the basic values in sport?

17 Values in philosophy Platonic, idealistic view: there are objective and eternal values (Popper’s World 3) Cultural, historical view: values are dependent upon the social construction of reality (Berger & Luckman, MacIntyre) Subjective, individualistic view: values express individual preferences (decision theory, utilitarianism)

18 Ethical theories 3 paradigms Norm - based (deontological theories, Kant) Utility - based (utilitarianism, Mill, Hare) Virtue - based (virtue ethics, Aristotle, MacIntyre)

19 From modernity towards postmodernity? Rationality Universal Science Progress Understanding Local, relative Discourses Different life forms Modernity Postmodernity

20 Values inside sport Intrinsic values - what is valuable in its own right (intrinsically good) Extrinsic values - what is valuable as means to other ends (extrinsically good)

21 Intrinsic values - British sport Sport promotes moral values: –honesty –loyalty –fair play –endurance –pain tolerance –generosity

22 Intrinsic values - today Examples –Knowledge, moral values, creativity, self- expression (Arnold) –Harmony, intuitive knowledge (Herrigel) –Play, freedom, individuality (Morgan) –Challenge, uncertainty (Suits) –Expression, beauty, art (Wertz) –Ethics, moderation, professionalism (Zeigler)

23 Kretchmar: Intrinsic and extrinsic values Pleasure - play, intrigue, delight Motor skill - confidence, excellence Fitness - bodily light- ness, endurance, strength Knowledge - enlightenment Pleasure - means to better health etc. Skill - means to better play Fitness - means to all of life’s achievements and pleasures Knowledge - means for enlightened practice INTRINSIC VALUES EXTRINSIC VALUES

24 Elite athletes’ view of values in sport

25 Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97 Discussion I The top level athlete lives in a tension between the amateur and professional role model. Few are fully professional Full time training and poverty, or Good economy and too little time to training

26 Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97 Discussion II Heavy training and tough competitions - lead to injuries, pains and health problems But health is the most important thing in life A schizophrenic view: Sport is not a part of normal life, it is a “time out” from normal life

27 Gunnar Breivik - ECSS 97 Discussion III Sport as a “time out” with its own logic and rules explains why success is the most important factor for joy in sport, but not important for happiness in life Sport is not a part of “ordinary life” As sport becomes professionalized and a work this notion is impossible to uphold. There is no “normal life” after sport

28 III Athletics and other sports An empirical study of values

29 Norwegian Monitor 3000 persons interviewed - every second year A representative sample of the population above 15 years of age Demographic variables, values, attitudes and behavior Various areas of life, including sport practice

30 Modern values Traditional values Idealistic values Materialistic values

31 materialism status anti-health emotions risk urban consumption hedonism technology spontaneity law contempt non-religious IV III I II

32 anti-authority equality tolerance individuality novelty self- realization polysensualismaltruism environment egalitarian public dense anti-status III IV I II

33 anti- materialism private asceticism religion health rigidity puritanism rural patriotismlawabiding security investment I II IIIIV

34 non-egalitarian private egoism industrialism scattered not selfrealization tradition anti-technology authority trad. sex roles conformity intolearnce  rationality I II III IV

35 hiking golf orienteering swimming gymnastics cross country skiing tennis skating sailing telemark judo/karate squash boxing climbing motor sport alpine skiing soccer handball icehockey body building running materialism idealism traditional

36 ATHLETICS 99

37

38 AATHLETICS 97

39 CHANGE-ORIENTED Modern STABILITY-ORIENTED Traditional OUTER- ORIENTED Materialist INNER- ORIENTED Idealist III IIIIV Industrial Authority Conformity Preindustrial Religion, asceticism. family Postproductive Consumption Hedonism Postindustrial Tolerance Individuality

40 CHANGE-ORIENTED Modern STABILITY-ORIENTED Traditional OUTER- ORIENTED Materialist INNER- ORIENTED Idealist I II IIIIV Competitive sport, professional sport 20 th century Upper class amateur sport, Muscular Christianity, 19th century England Modern youth sport, modern top level sport Modern mass sport

41 Tensions Sport values have been frozen in quadrant I (The official sport ideology) Sport values have been opposed from left side sport critics, quadrant III Sport values have been implicitly developed by the youth avantgarde and commercial elite sport, quadrant IV

42 IV Core values in athletics

43 Two types of sport Physical games –baseball, football… Elements of skill, strategy and chance To have an exciting game Children’s play, games and circus Individual competitions - athletics Elements of skill (and strategy) No chance! Hard competition to decide who is best Hunting, war and scientific tests

44 Two types of logic in sport Sport as contest Chance factors Betting, uncertainty Entertainment Cockfight, horse racing, boxing Sport as test Skill factors Who is the best Suspense Athletics, gymnastics, swimming

45 Two ideal types The scientific experiment –remove chance factors –complete control –the more complex the experiment, the more difficult the task Idealtypus “Pure test of skills” THE ATHLETE The circus, entertainment –chance factors –do the “impossible” –the ability to impress –be unpredictable –entertain Idealtypus “Exciting game” THE PUBLIC

46 Causation Beliefs are true if they are caused in the right way by the conditions they represent Risks are taken if they enter in the right and relevant way, and can be coped with or mastered Winning should be based on the relevant skills and be the result of the sport relevant behavior of competing athletes. No chance!

47 Justice and equality in competitions Pure procedural justice - as equal conditions as possible during competitions No chance factors - (slippery ground, stones, wind bursts etc.) All equipment - clothes and shoes should be produced by the same manufacturer for all the participants

48 Values inherent in sport competitions Mastery, coping performance, perfection winning, success records beyond limits CITIUS ALTIUS FORTIUS

49 Values in athletics Motor abilities technical skills strength,power speed endurance specialization many-sidedness (decathlon)

50 Specator values The good game the tough and even competition the sweet tension the ultimate performance identification peak experience perfection on earth

51 Moral values in sport Do your best, play to win Fairness, equality honesty generosity comradeship, team spirit will, endurance, toughness

52 Values as desert Health sociality, friendship closeness to nature closeness to ones body

53 External values Money honor prestige self-image material rewards

54 V What lies ahead? Future paradigms and possibilities

55 General competitive sport Recreation and outdoor pursuits Youth sport Extreme sports Elite sport Fitness and aerobics Individual training, jogging

56 Paradigms Traditional competitive sport Elite sport – extreme performance, serious competition and show Youth sports and extreme sports – sensation seeking and play Fitness and training – health, aesthetics and quality of life

57 Paradigm A -The traditional Children - the playing grounds and free play loosing terrain – the bodily clumsy and fat children School sports and physical education need a new paradigm, facilities, subject content General competitive sport in local clubs in decline Training during work hours Outdoor life, an attractive paradigm – the honest, the quiet, the natural New activity possibility for old people

58 Paradigm B - fitness and training Build body and strength – anabolic subcultures – Megalomania and the trans-liminal – drugs, steroids, aggressive contact sports, street gangs and crime Aerobics, aesthetics, body and rhythm –The hunt for health, life quality, body shape and beauty Training for all – spinning and training parties, muscle building for middle aged women – individuality, effectiveness, the fight against time and obesity – the quest for a better life

59 Paradigm C - Elite sport 1 Motive – to win, to set world records, to succeed in the public and in the market The sport movement, the sponsors, the media, the market – the new coalitions Clubs, national teams, company teams, investors’ teams. Competition for money, public, television – speed skating versus biathlon

60 Elite sport 2 How to succeed in the market –record sports, extreme competitions (athletics) –aggressiveness/conflict (soccer/ice hockey) –risk/drama (formula 1, downhill skiing) –national success tied to national traditions (cross country skiing in Norway) –Skill sports with appeal to the masses and television potentials (tennis and golf) –…...

61 Elite sport 4 Elite sport, ethical problems Alternative 1: Elite sport as a human drama based on equality and moral agreement Alternative 2: Elite sport as ”the greatest show on earth” – beyond good and evil Elite sports should more and more be guided by humanistic and democratic principles

62 Elite sports 4 The most important thing is not to win but to take part The most important thing is to win after a hard, fair and honest fight To win isn’t everything it is the only thing A humanistic and democratic elite sport ethos!

63 Elite sports in the future Competition as a part of human nature Competition a cultural construct Decline in competition in the Western countries and a new youthful,playful, hedonistic culture? Or harder more extreme competitions, with more athletes from non-Western cultures?

64 Paradigm D – youth sports Trendy youth sports – risks, challenges, mastery, excitement New technology, life style, slang, ideology –Board sports - homo ludens –Extreme games 1995 – skate board,sky surfing. –The extreme challenges – the liminal – solo climbing, base jumping, ski extreme

65 Values in athletics, achievement Joy through active-ness! Mastery, coping - skills, knowledge Achievement, improvement Winning, succeeeding Records, peak performance Elite sport as part of a national and international elite cultur

66 Values in atheltics- health Making the health risk risk as small as possible in relation to the goals (accepatbility) Push the systems up towards the limits Children and youth - play, toughening, manysided activities

67 Values in atheltics, exploration Elite sport and new disciplines, new equipment, training methods, types of compettion - what is possible? Elite sport as pushing the limits, breaking barriers Continuing childrens’ play - what can I do?

68 Elite sport, sociality Elite sport - the coach, achievement in teams, the competitiveness and togetherness The community of sport people - athletes, coaches, leaders, medical personell, support team The attractivess of environments, the arenas, the availability

69 Values in atheltics - honesty Elite sport and moral values, pushing moral limits? English sport - develop character, personality- “virtues” Generosity, honesty, fairness - winning with morals, winning in the right way (causality) Investment, commitment, goal theory

70 The idea of sport The vision of a hard and open competition with fair means with generosity - where all can perform at their highest level The hard even fight and the right winner Athletes with integrity and the well- educated public The equipment gets it proper place

71 The future of sports We will not end up with a sport out of control - with doping, lies and brutality Sport will get under the control and supervision of society - control of economy and commercialization Humanity and democratic values - independent institutions and quality control!


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