Presentation on theme: "PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M."— Presentation transcript:
PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M.
PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS Phraseology as the branch of Linguistics. The problem of terminology Definition of phraseological units. Criteria for phraseologacal units Three approaches towards the study of phraseological units Classification of phraseological units
Phraseology is the branch of Linguistics appeared in the 1940s studies phraseological units of the language
Object of Phraseology phraseological units, their nature, the way they function in speech
Problem of terminology set expression idiom set phrase fixed word-groups word-equivalent phraseological unit
Phraseological Units Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units (idioms). They are compiled in special dictionaries.
Phraseological Units non-motivated word-groups cannot be freely made up in speech reproduced as ready-made units structurally stable possess stability of lexical components reproduced as single unchangeable collocations
Criteria to distinguish free-word groups from phraseological units semantic criterion structural criterion syntactic criterion
Semantic criterion free word-roups each meaningful component stands for a separate concept a red flower phraseological units convey a single concept red tape
Semantic criterion Phraseological units are characterized by different degrees of semantic change: 1. semantic change may affect the whole word- group (“complete transferred meaning”) to skate on thin ice (to take risks), to have one’s heart in one’s boots (to be anxious about smth.)
Semantic criterion 2. semantic change may affect only one of the components of a word-group (“partially transferred meaning”) to fall in love, small talk
Structural Criterion: restriction in substitution free word-groups – components may be changed The cargo ship/vessel is carrying coal to Liverpool/ Manchester phraseological units – no word can be replaced without destroying the sense to carry coals to Newcastle
Structural Criterion: introducing additional components free word-groups – change can be made without affecting the general meaning The big ship is carrying a large cargo of coal to the port of Liverpool phraseological units – no additional components can be introduced the white elephant – NOT the big white elephant
Structural Criterion: grammatical invariability free word-groups – red flower – red flowers phraseological units to find fault with smb. NOT to find faults with smb.
Approaches to the Study of Phraseological Units Semantic functional contextual
Semantic Approach phraseological units are non-motivated (idiomacity) phraseological units are opposed to free-word combinations which are completely motivated
Functional Approach phraseological units are specific word-groups functioning like word-equivalents like words they possess structural and semantic inseparability
Contextual Approach phraseological units are used in specific contexts – non-variable, or “fixed” non-variability is a stability of the lexical components within the semantic structure
Phraseological transference Based on Simile (intensification of some feature of an object by bringing it into contact with another object) As pretty as a picture To fight as a lion Based on metaphor (likening of one object to another) Flog a dead horse Join the majority
Phraseological transference Based on metonymy (transfer of a name-перенос наименования from one object to another based on the contiguity of their properties, action) A silk stocking –a rich well-dressed man Synecdoche (a variety of metonymy- the replacement of the common by the private) The flesh and blood To hold one’s tongue
Classification of phraseological units Phraseological fusions (completely non-motivated) White elephant “expensive but useless thing” Phraseological unities (partially non-motivated) To wash one’s dirty linen in public To discuss or make public one’s quarrels Phraseological unities (are motivated and contain one component in its direct meaning) To meet the necessity
Ways of forming phraseological units By A.V. Koonin –the way they are formed Primary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group) Secondary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit)
Primary ways Transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups To link up Стыковать космические корабли знакомиться b) Transferring the meaning of free word-groups Granny farm Пансионат для престарелых As old as the hills Старый как мир c) By means of alliteration sad sack Несчастный случай Culture vulture Человек, увлекающийся искусством
d) By means of rhyming By hook or by crook By any possible means High and dry Left without help By means of expressiveness My aunt! By using synonyms Really and truly quite honestly By means of distorting (искажение) Odd ends Odds and ends
By using a sentence in different sphere of life That cock won’t fight (metaphor) cock fighting sport Using some unreal image To have butterflies in the stomach To have green fingers By using archaism In brown study in gloomy meditation By using expressions of writers or politicians in everyday life American dream (Alby) The winds of change (Mc Millan)
Secondary ways Conversion To vote with one’s feet vote with one’s feet (expressing a protest by going away) Analogy Curiosity killed the cat Care killed the cat Contrast Thin cat (a poor person) Fat cat (a rich person) Shortening of proverbs by clipping the middle You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear to make a sow’s ear (To make a mistake)
Semantic classification V.V. Vinogradov According to the degree of motivation of the meaning Fusions (highly idiomatic – can’t be translated word by word) At sixes and sevens (in a mess) Unities (can be guessed from the meaning of the components but it is transferred - metaphor or metonymy) To play the first fiddle Collocations (words are combined in their original meaning but the combination is different ) Cash and carry (self-service shop)
Structural classification A.I.Smirnitsky comparing with the words One top unit (comparison with affixed words --have only one root morpheme) Two-top unit (comparison with compound words – usually have two root morpheme)
One-top unit verb +post position type “to give up” To art up приукрашать To nose up Разнюхивать To sandwich in Втискиваться Passive type structures “to be tired” To be interested in Prepositional- nominal (the semantic centre is in the nominal part) On the doorstep quite near
Two-top units Attributive-nominal A month of Sundays - целая вечность Verb-nominal To read between the lines – понимать скрытый смысл Phraseological repetitions Now and never теперь или никогда Ups and downs (antonyms) взлеты и падения Cakes and ale (alliteration) удовольствия жизни Cool as cucumber (partly or perfectly idiomatic) Хладнокровный
Syntactical classification I.V.Arnold based on parts of speech Noun phraseologisms verb phraseologisms adjective phraseologisms adverb phraseologisms preposition phraseologisms interjection phraseologism
Noun phraseologisms N+N maiden name N’s +N ladies’ man N+prep+N skeleton in the cupboard N+A knight errant A+N high tea N+subordinate clause Ships that pass in the night ( chance acquaintances)
verb phraseologisms V+N To take advantage V+V To pick and choose (быть разборчивым) V + one’s +N +prep To pick and choose Пренебрежительно относиться V+one+N To give one the bird Уволить V+subordinate clause To see how the land lies Понимать суть дела
Аdjective phraseologisms A+and +A High and mighty Могущественный (as)+A+as +A As loose as a goose неуклюжий Adverb phraseologisms Adv+prep +N Once in a blue moon Очень редко
Preposition phraseologisms Prep +N+prep In course of Interjection phraseologism Catch me! Ни за что! Well, I never! Вот уж не ожидал! God bless me!
The main sources of native phraseological units Terminological and professional lexics Center of gravity (physics) British literature Green-eyed moster Jelousy W. Shakespeare British traditions and customs Baker’s dozen Superstition and legends Black sheep Historical facts and events To do a Thatcher Facts of everyday life A carry coal to Newcastle
The main sources of borrowed phraseological units The Holy Script The kiss of Judas (Matthew XXVI:49) Ancient legends belonging to different culture To cut the Gordian knot Facts and events of the world history To cross the Rubicon From other languages Tilt at windmills (acometer molinos de viente – Spanish)
Proverb (пословица) sum up the collective wisdom of the community, a popular truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative way are metaphorical
Proverbs moralize Hell is paved with good intentions admonish If you sing before breakfast, you will cry before night criticize Everyone calls his own geese swans give advice Don’t judge a tree by its bark
Proverbs lexical components are stable meaning is figurative are ready-made units are easily transformed into phraseological units don’t cast pearls before swine – to cast pearls before swine
Saying (поговорка) are non-metaphorical, not figurative grammatically they are finished sentences Where there is a way, there is a will
Familiar Quotations (крылатые выражения) come from literature in contrast to proverbs, they do not express finished judgment To err (ошибаться) is human.
Practice! Give the translation and explain the associations To rain cats and dogs To rain very hard Cats and dogs fighting fiercely To show one’s teeth Use power in aggressive way Animals behaviour To mend one’s manners Become more refined in behaviour Repairing To catch someone red-handed To catch in the act of crime Blood on hands Diamond cut diamond A contest between the equal people
The stronger sex, as cool as a cucumber, blood and thunder, hot under the collar, as green as grass, to hold one’s horses, to cross hands 1. She was naïve when she was We must unite with them. 3. I thought she would cry but she stayed calm. 4. He got very angry when he knew all the truth. 5. There were in that violent story 6. You shouldn’t exaggerate her attraction for men 7. All of them were told to wait.
Give the meaning and state the type of transferences Ex in the flower of one’s age the best period of life metaphor To go through fire and water To fit like a glove A big wig To lick one’s wound To lie on one’s shoulders As gentle as a lamb Metaphor –two opposite nature phenomenon Simile Metonymy + metaphor Metaphor Metaphor +synecdoche similie
Dark horse, to work like a dog, to lord over, to put one’s cards on the table, red tape, fat cats, to see smb in flesh 1. Some people are loosing their jobs while the … are getting richer. 2. He is …. I’ve never known that he is married 3. There is so much … involved in getting a visa. 4. It was … and she told him that she had no intension to marry him. 5. He.. all day to finish the wallpapering. 6. I knew his face so well from the pics that it felt a bit strange when I finally … 7. He likes …. the more junior staff in the office Fat cats Dark horse Red tape To put her card on the table Was working like a dog Saw him in flesh To lord over