Presentation on theme: "PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12"— Presentation transcript:
1PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN ENGLISH Lecture # 12 Grigoryeva M.
2PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITSPhraseology as the branch of Linguistics. The problem of terminologyDefinition of phraseological units. Criteria for phraseologacal unitsThree approaches towards the study of phraseological unitsClassification of phraseological units
3Phraseology is the branch of Linguistics appeared in the 1940s studies phraseological units of the language
4Object of Phraseology phraseological units, their nature, the way they function in speech
5Problem of terminology set expressionidiomset phrasefixed word-groupsword-equivalentphraseological unit
6Phraseological UnitsPhraseological units are word-groups that cannot bemade in the process of speech, they exist in the languageas ready-made units (idioms).They are compiled in special dictionaries.
7Phraseological Units non-motivated word-groups cannot be freely made up in speechreproduced as ready-made unitsstructurally stablepossess stability of lexical componentsreproduced as single unchangeable collocations
8Criteria to distinguish free-word groups from phraseological units semantic criterionstructural criterionsyntactic criterion
9Semantic criterion free word-roups each meaningful component stands for aseparate concepta red flowerphraseological unitsconvey a single conceptred tape
10Semantic criterionPhraseological units are characterized by different degrees of semantic change:semantic change may affect the whole word-group (“complete transferred meaning”)to skate on thin ice (to take risks),to have one’s heart in one’s boots (to be anxiousabout smth.)
11Semantic criterion 2. semantic change may affect only one of the components of a word-group(“partially transferred meaning”)to fall in love, small talk
12Structural Criterion: restriction in substitution free word-groups – components may be changedThe cargo ship/vessel iscarrying coal toLiverpool/ Manchesterphraseological units – no word can be replaced without destroying the senseto carry coals toNewcastle
13Structural Criterion: introducing additional components free word-groups – change can be made without affecting the general meaningThe big ship is carryinga large cargo of coal to the port of Liverpoolphraseological units – no additional components can be introducedthe white elephant –NOTthe big white elephant
14Structural Criterion: grammatical invariability free word-groups –red flower – red flowersphraseological unitsto find fault with smb. NOTto find faults with smb.
15Approaches to the Study of Phraseological Units Semanticfunctionalcontextual
16Semantic Approach phraseological units are non-motivated (idiomacity) phraseological units are opposed to free-word combinations which are completely motivated
17Functional Approachphraseological units are specific word-groups functioning like word-equivalentslike words they possess structural and semantic inseparability
18Contextual Approachphraseological units are used in specific contexts – non-variable, or “fixed”non-variability is a stability of the lexical components within the semantic structure
19Phraseological transference Based on Simile(intensification of some feature of an object by bringing itinto contact with another object)As pretty as a pictureTo fight as a lionBased on metaphor(likening of one object to another)Flog a dead horseJoin the majority
20Phraseological transference Based on metonymy(transfer of a name-перенос наименования from one object to anotherbased on the contiguity of their properties, action)A silk stocking –a rich well-dressed manSynecdoche (a variety of metonymy- the replacement of the common by the private)The flesh and bloodTo hold one’s tongue
21Classification of phraseological units Phraseological fusions (completely non-motivated)White elephant“expensive but useless thing”Phraseological unities (partially non-motivated)To wash one’s dirty linen in publicTo discuss or make public one’s quarrelsPhraseological unities (are motivated and contain one component in its direct meaning)To meet the necessity
22Ways of forming phraseological units By A.V. Koonin –the way they are formedPrimary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group)Secondary ways (when a unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit)
23Primary ways Transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups To link upСтыковать космические корабли знакомитьсяb) Transferring the meaning of free word-groupsGranny farmПансионат для престарелыхAs old as the hillsСтарый как мирc) By means of alliterationsad sackНесчастный случайCulture vultureЧеловек, увлекающийся искусством
24By means of expressiveness My aunt! d) By means of rhymingBy hook or by crook By any possible meansHigh and dry Left without helpBy means of expressivenessMy aunt!By using synonymsReally and truly quite honestlyBy means of distorting (искажение)Odd ends Odds and ends
25By using a sentence in different sphere of life That cock won’t fight (metaphor) cock fighting sportUsing some unreal imageTo have butterflies in the stomachTo have green fingersBy using archaismIn brown study in gloomy meditationBy using expressions of writers or politicians in everyday lifeAmerican dream (Alby)The winds of change (Mc Millan)
26Secondary ways Conversion To vote with one’s feet vote with one’s feet (expressing a protest by going away)AnalogyCuriosity killed the cat Care killed the catContrastThin cat (a poor person) Fat cat (a rich person)Shortening of proverbs by clipping the middleYou can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear to make a sow’s ear(To make a mistake)
27Semantic classification V.V. VinogradovAccording to the degree of motivation of the meaningFusions (highly idiomatic – can’t be translated word by word)At sixes and sevens (in a mess)Unities (can be guessed from the meaning of the components but it is transferred - metaphor or metonymy)To play the first fiddleCollocations (words are combined in their original meaning but the combination is different )Cash and carry (self-service shop)
28Structural classification A.I.Smirnitsky comparing with the wordsOne top unit (comparison with affixed words --have only one root morpheme)Two-top unit (comparison with compound words –usually have two root morpheme)
29One-top unit verb +post position type “to give up” To art up приукрашатьTo nose upРазнюхиватьTo sandwich inВтискиватьсяPassive type structures “to be tired”To be interested inPrepositional- nominal (the semantic centre is in the nominal part)On the doorstep quite near
30Two-top units Attributive-nominal A month of Sundays - целая вечность Verb-nominalTo read between the lines – понимать скрытый смыслPhraseological repetitionsNow and neverтеперь или никогдаUps and downs (antonyms)взлеты и паденияCakes and ale (alliteration)удовольствия жизниCool as cucumber (partly or perfectly idiomatic)Хладнокровный
31Syntactical classification I.V.Arnold based on parts of speechNoun phraseologismsverb phraseologismsadjective phraseologismsadverb phraseologismspreposition phraseologismsinterjection phraseologism
32Noun phraseologisms N+N maiden name N’s +N ladies’ man N+prep+N skeleton in the cupboardN+Aknight errantA+Nhigh teaN+subordinate clauseShips that pass in the night ( chance acquaintances)
33verb phraseologisms V+N To take advantage V+V To pick and choose (быть разборчивым)V + one’s +N +prepTo pick and chooseПренебрежительно относитьсяV+one+NTo give one the birdУволитьV+subordinate clauseTo see how the land liesПонимать суть дела
34Аdjective phraseologisms A+and +AHigh and mightyМогущественный(as)+A+as +AAs loose as a gooseнеуклюжийAdverb phraseologismsAdv+prep +NOnce in a blue moonОчень редко
35Preposition phraseologisms Prep +N+prepIn course ofInterjection phraseologismCatch me!Ни за что!Well, I never!Вот уж не ожидал!God bless me!
36The main sources of native phraseological units Terminological and professional lexicsCenter of gravity (physics)British literatureGreen-eyed mosterJelousyW. ShakespeareBritish traditions and customsBaker’s dozenSuperstition and legendsBlack sheepHistorical facts and eventsTo do a ThatcherFacts of everyday lifeA carry coal to Newcastle
37The main sources of borrowed phraseological units The Holy ScriptThe kiss of Judas (Matthew XXVI:49)Ancient legends belonging to different cultureTo cut the Gordian knotFacts and events of the world historyTo cross the RubiconFrom other languagesTilt at windmills (acometer molinos de viente – Spanish)
38Proverb (пословица)sum up the collective wisdom of the community, a popular truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative wayare metaphorical
39Proverbs moralize Hell is paved with good intentions admonish If you sing before breakfast, you will cry before nightcriticizeEveryone calls his own geese swansgive adviceDon’t judge a tree by its bark
40Proverbs lexical components are stable meaning is figurative are ready-made unitsare easily transformed into phraseological unitsdon’t cast pearls before swine –to cast pearls before swine
41Saying (поговорка) are non-metaphorical, not figurative grammatically they are finished sentencesWhere there is a way, there is a will
42Familiar Quotations (крылатые выражения) come from literaturein contrast to proverbs, they do not express finished judgmentTo err (ошибаться) is human.
43Practice! Give the translation and explain the associations To rain cats and dogsTo rain very hardCats and dogs fighting fiercelyTo show one’s teethUse power in aggressive wayAnimals behaviourTo mend one’s mannersBecome more refined in behaviourRepairingTo catch someone red-handedTo catch in the act of crimeBlood on handsDiamond cut diamondA contest between the equal people
44She was naïve when she was 16. We must unite with them. The stronger sex, as cool as a cucumber, blood and thunder, hot under the collar, as green as grass, to hold one’s horses, to cross handsShe was naïve when she was 16.We must unite with them.I thought she would cry but she stayed calm.He got very angry when he knew all the truth.There were in that violent storyYou shouldn’t exaggerate her attraction for menAll of them were told to wait.
45Give the meaning and state the type of transferences Ex in the flower of one’s age the best period of life metaphorTo go through fire and waterTo fit like a gloveA big wigTo lick one’s woundTo lie on one’s shouldersAs gentle as a lambMetaphor –two opposite nature phenomenonSimileMetonymy + metaphorMetaphorMetaphor +synecdochesimilie
46Dark horse, to work like a dog , to lord over, to put one’s cards on the table, red tape, fat cats, to see smb in fleshSome people are loosing their jobs while the … are getting richer.He is …. I’ve never known that he is marriedThere is so much … involved in getting a visa.It was … and she told him that she had no intension to marry him.He .. all day to finish the wallpapering.I knew his face so well from the pics that it felt a bit strange when I finally …He likes …. the more junior staff in the officeFat catsDark horseRed tapeTo put her card on the tableWas working like a dogSaw him in fleshTo lord over