Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

General Zoology Unit Five. Eukaryotic, eumetazoans, deuterostomes Triploblastic, eucoelomates Worm like body divided into three segments Bilaterally symmetrical.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "General Zoology Unit Five. Eukaryotic, eumetazoans, deuterostomes Triploblastic, eucoelomates Worm like body divided into three segments Bilaterally symmetrical."— Presentation transcript:

1 General Zoology Unit Five

2 Eukaryotic, eumetazoans, deuterostomes Triploblastic, eucoelomates Worm like body divided into three segments Bilaterally symmetrical (cephalization) Closed circulatory system with dorsal heart Respiration through gill slits Complete digestive system Sexual reproduction – dioecious, external fertilizers with metamorphosis

3

4

5 Chordate Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Urochordata (tunicates) Subphylum - Vertebrata Superclass - Agnatha Class - Myxini (hagfish) Class - Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys) Subphylum - Cephalochordata (lancelets) Ex. Branchiostoma

6 Chordate Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, rays) Class - Actinopterygii (ray finned bony fish) Class - Sarcopterygii (lobe finned bony fish) Class - Amphibia Superclass - Gnathostomata Class - Reptilia Class - Aves Class - Mammalia

7

8

9

10 Garstang’s Hypothesis of Vertebrate Evolution

11 Developmental Definitions Paedomorphosis - the retention of larval traits in the adult body Neotony - a process in which the growth rate is slowed to the extent that sexual maturity is reached before the ancestral adult form is obtained

12 Developmental Definitions Progenesis - the precocious maturation of the gonads in a juvenile body that stops growing and never attains the adult body form Post-displacement - a delay of the onset of a developmental process relative to sexual maturity, so that the ancestral adult form is not attained before reproductive maturity

13 Garstang’s Hypothesis of Vertebrate Evolution

14 Vertebrate Ancestry

15 Fish Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Myxini (hagfish) Superclass - Agnatha Ex. Myxine Class - Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys) Ex. Petromyzon

16 Fish Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, rays) Superclass - Gnathostomata Subclass - Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, rays) Ex. Squalus, Raja Subclass - Holocephali (chimeras or ratfish) Ex. Chimera

17 Fish Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Actinopterygii (ray finned bony fish) Superclass - Gnathostomata Ex. Perca, Amia, Polyodon Class - Sarcopterygii (lobe finned bony fish Ex. Latimeria

18 All five chordate hallmark characteristics Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone Closed circulatory system with a ventral heart Complete digestive tract Excretion carried out by paired kidneys Complex nervous system with a brain, dorsal nerve cord and advanced sense organs Most have two pairs of appendages

19 All members have the vertebrate characteristics All are elongated and eel shaped All are jawless Scales are absent Complete digestive system without a stomach None have paired appendages The notochord is persistent into adulthood

20

21

22 All members have the vertebrate characteristics All members have a jaw All have an endoskeleton of cartilage or bone All have or have had paired appendages

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32 Osmoregulation in Fish

33 Respiration in Fish

34 Respiration in Fish

35 Respiration in Fish

36 Vertebrate Thermoregulation Ectothermic – obtaining body heat from the environment Poikilothermic – non-regulatory, the body temperature is the same as the ambient environment Regulatory ectotherms – maintain a consistent body temperature through physiological and behavioral means

37 Vertebrate Thermoregulation Endothermic – body heat is produced internally (homeothermic) Fish are poikilothermic because water is a heat sink

38 Buoyancy in Fish Squalene (liver oil)

39 Buoyancy in Fish Physostomous bladder aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa

40 Buoyancy in Fish Physoclistous bladder aa aa aa aa aa aa a

41 Fish Feeding Strategies Most fish are carnivores Most ocean species are suspension feeders Some are scavengers A few species are parasites A few species are herbivores A few species are omnivores

42 Fish Reproductive Adaptations Oviparous - egg laying Ovoviviparous - retention of eggs Viviparous – live birth All three methods are found in cartilaginous and bony fishes Cartilaginous fish are internal fertilizers while most bony fish are external fertilizers

43 Diadromous - fish that make “two runs” in their life to live and reproduce Anadromous - fish that “run up” - salmon Catadromous - fish that “run down” - eels Parthenogenesis - no males required, females produce diploid eggs - Amazon molly Fish Reproductive Adaptations

44 Amphibian Taxonomy Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Amphibia Superclass - Gnathostomata Order - Gymnophiona (caecilians) Order - Caudata (salamanders) Ex. Ambystoma, Necturus Order - Anura (frogs) Ex. Rana, Bufo

45 All five chordate hallmark characteristics Endoskeleton of bone Large mouth - all members carnivores Thin, gland rich skin with no scales or claws Respiration - lungs, gills or cutaneous Closed double looped circulatory system with a ventral three chambered heart Regulatory ectotherms

46 Excretion through opisthonephric kidneys and urea as the primary nitrogenous waste Nervous system with a brain and dorsal nerve cord - well developed sight and hearing Most are tetrapods Reproduction – dioecious, some internal, others external fertilizers, some metamorphosis

47 Caecilians Fossorial, tropical & subtropical organisms Legless, elongated worm-like bodies Eggs are laid in moist soil Most are blind, with smell and touch being the best senses Some species are viviparous

48 Salamanders, newts, amphiumas, sirens Some aquatic, some terrestrial Most have four legs & all have a tail Internal fertilization Respiration by gills, skin and lungs Metamorphosis and direct development Paedomorphosis common

49 Frogs Some aquatic, some terrestrial All have four legs and no tail (one exception) External fertilization Respiration by skin and lungs Metamorphosis and direct development Good vision and nictitating membranes

50 Amphibian Evolutionary Pressures Respiration Support Thermoregulation Ecological diversity

51 Amphibian Respiratory Strategies Cutaneous Pulmonary Buccopharyngeal

52 Amphibian Respiratory Strategies Gills

53 Amphibian Circulation

54 Amphibian Circulation

55 Amphibian Thermoregulation Many amphibians are regulatory ectotherms, using physiological and behavioral means Aquatic species and salamanders are poikilothermic, but other terrestrial species will drop to this level of thermoregulation during hibernation and estivation

56 Amphibian Metamorphosis

57 Caudatan Development Remember! Neotony - a process in which the growth rate is slowed to the extent that sexual maturity is reached before the ancestral adult form is obtained In caudatans there are two forms of neotony - obligate and facultative

58 Obligate neotony Facultative neotony


Download ppt "General Zoology Unit Five. Eukaryotic, eumetazoans, deuterostomes Triploblastic, eucoelomates Worm like body divided into three segments Bilaterally symmetrical."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google