11Ice-skatingAs we glide across the ice, we exert pressure on the thin blade, and are therefore creating a small stream of water in our path by melting that ice. The water between the blade and the ice is what we really glide across.
12Response of melting temperature to the applied pressure
13Relationship between equilibrium temperature and pressure
19Elevation of boiling point Boiling point of water is raised if the pressure above water is increased; it is lowered if the pressure is reduced. This explains why water boils at 70 °C up in the Himalaya
20Elevation of boiling point An application of this effect is the pressure cooker. A pressure cooker traps steam inside it, raising the pressure to about twice the atmospheric pressure. As a result, the water boils at 120 °C. Food cooks quicker at the higher temperature. There is a safety valve on the cover which opens if the pressure is too high.
21AutoclaveSterilization of both materials and contaminated media is an essential process in a laboratory for in vitro cultures.This sterilization is usually done in a device called an autoclave.Essentially, an autoclave is a container that exposes the material to be sterilized to temperatures above the boiling point of water, which is achieved by increasing pressure.
23DH of vaporization of water is cal/g at the normal boiling point. Many bacteria can survive at 100 C by forming spores. Hence autoclaves used to sterlize medical and laboratory instruments are pressurized to raise the boiling point of water to 120 C. What will be the pressure required to increase the boiling point of water to 120 ºC ?
24Q. Ar has normal melting and boiling points of 83. 8 and 87 Q. Ar has normal melting and boiling points of 83.8 and 87.3 K; its triple point is at 83.8 K and 0.7 atm, and its critical temperature and pressure are 151 K and 48 atm. State whether Ar is a solid, liquid, or gas under each of the following conditions (a) 0.9 atm and 90 K (b) 0.7 atm and 80 K (c) 0.8 atm and 88 K (d) 0.8 atm and 84 K (e) 1.2 atm and 83.5 K.
25Q. Dry ice is frozen carbondioxide Q. Dry ice is frozen carbondioxide. A block of dry ice has a surface temperature of C. If you want to send something frozen across the country, you can pack it in dry ice. It will be frozen when it reaches its destination, and there will be no messy liquid left over like you would have with normal ice. Explain this phenomenon with the help of a phase diagram?
29Degree of FreedomNumber of independent intensive variables needed to specify its intensive state.T, P and mole fraction in each phase.
30Total number of intensive variable = pc +2 Mole fraction of components in each phase must be oneNumber of relation =number of phases= pFor chemical equilibrium,Chemical potential of individual component will be same in each of the phases.In each of the component(p-1) relation for each of the componentTotal number of relation for chemical equilibrium = c(p-1)Degree of Freedom = pc + 2 – p - c(p-1)= c – p + 2