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Morphological Process

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Presentation on theme: "Morphological Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphological Process
Affixation => prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix Non-affixal derivation/inflection =>Compounding => Reduplication => Alternation => Suppletion

2 Infix (Tagalog) tulong ‘help’ => tumulong ‘helped’ lipad ‘fly’
=> lumipad ‘flew’ kain ‘eat’ => kumain ‘ate’

3 uwi ‘return’ => umuwi ‘returned’ ([ʔumuwi]) gradwet ‘graduate’ => gumradwet or grumadwet ‘graduated’ Infix = [-um-] after first consonant

4 Circumfix (Indonesian)
Root Derived Form baik ‘good’ kebaikan ‘goodness’ bersih ‘clean’ kebersihan ‘cleanliness’ cantik ‘beautiful’ kecantikan ‘beauty’ sulit ‘difficult’ kesulitan ‘difficulty’ => [kə-] + Adj + [-an]

5 Total Reduplication Indonesian omong ‘talk’ omong-omong ‘chat’
duduk ‘sit’ duduk-duduk ‘sit around’

6 Partial Reduplication
Tagalog tulong ‘help’ => tutulong ‘will help’ lipad ‘fly’ => lilipad ‘will fly’ kain ‘eat’ => kakain ‘will eat’

7 uwi ‘return’ => uuwi ‘will return’ gradwet ‘graduate’ => gagradwet Reduplication = repeat first consonant and vowel

8 Compounding N-N: girlfriend, landlord, fire-fighter
A-N: blackbird, happy hour P-N: overcoat, outhouse, underpass N-A: trigger-happy, boy crazy

9 Characteristics of Compounds
Stress change good friend vs girlfriend Meaning change black bird vs blackbird black board vs blackboard

10 Alternation Singular Plural mouse [ɑʊ] mice [ɑɪ] goose [u] geese [i]
woman [ʊ] women [ɪ] foot [ʊ] feet [i]

11 Noun Verb strife [f] strive [v] teeth [θ] teethe [ð] breath [θ] breathe [ð] use [s] use [z]

12 Arabic Alternation Singular Plural nafs nufuus ‘soul’
bank bunuuk ‘bank’

13 Derivation by Stress Verb Noun conduct conduct insert insert
reject reject convict convict

14 Derivation by Tone Mandarin 教 [tçjɑʊ] 將 [tçjɑŋ]
level tone => ‘teach’ falling tone => ‘something taught’ 將 [tçjɑŋ] level tone => ‘lead’ falling tone => ‘one who leads’

15 Suppletion go went be is am are good better bad worse

16 Zero Derivations Noun Verb bike bike skate skate work work
winter winter

17 Morphological Types Analytic (isolating) => One morpheme per word
Synthetic => Polymorphemic words

18 Synthetic Types Agglutinating => Morphemes are easily segmentable.
=> One meaning per form Fusional => Not easily segmentable => Multiple meanings per form

19 Fusional Spanish [hablo] ‘I am speaking.’ [habla] ‘S/he is speaking.’
[hable] ‘I spoke.’

20 Polysynthesis Onondaga (Iroquoian) Pet wa?-ha-htu?ta?
Pat Past-Agr-lose ne? ohwista? the money “Pat lost the money.”

21 Incorporated Pet wa?-ha-hwist-ahtu?ta? Pat Past-Agr-money-lose “Pat lost money.”

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