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Morphological Process Affixation => prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix Non-affixal derivation/inflection =>Compounding => Reduplication => Alternation => Suppletion
Infix (Tagalog) tulong ‘help’ => tumulong ‘helped’ lipad ‘fly’ => lumipad ‘flew’ kain ‘eat’ => kumain ‘ate’
uwi ‘return’ => umuwi ‘returned’ ([ ʔ umuwi]) gradwet ‘graduate’ => gumradwet or grumadwet ‘graduated’ Infix = [-um-] after first consonant
Circumfix (Indonesian) RootDerived Form baik ‘good’kebaikan ‘goodness’ bersih ‘clean’kebersihan ‘cleanliness’ cantik ‘beautiful’kecantikan ‘beauty’ sulit ‘difficult’kesulitan ‘difficulty’ => [kə-] + Adj + [-an]
Total Reduplication Indonesian omong‘talk’ omong-omong‘chat’ duduk‘sit’ duduk-duduk‘sit around’
Partial Reduplication Tagalog tulong ‘help’ => tutulong ‘will help’ lipad ‘fly’ => lilipad ‘will fly’ kain ‘eat’ => kakain ‘will eat’
uwi ‘return’ => uuwi ‘will return’ gradwet ‘graduate’ => gagradwet Reduplication = repeat first consonant and vowel
Compounding N-N:girlfriend, landlord, fire-fighter A-N:blackbird, happy hour P-N:overcoat, outhouse, underpass N-A:trigger-happy, boy crazy
Characteristics of Compounds Stress change good friend vs girlfriend Meaning change black bird vs blackbird black board vs blackboard
Alternation SingularPlural mouse[ ɑʊ ]mice[ ɑɪ ] goose[u]geese[i] woman[ ʊ ]women[ ɪ ] foot[ ʊ ] feet[i]
NounVerb strife[f]strive[v] teeth[θ]teethe[ð] breath[θ]breathe[ð] use[s]use[z]
Arabic Alternation SingularPlural nafsnufuus‘soul’ bankbunuuk‘bank’
Derivation by Stress VerbNoun conductconduct insertinsert rejectreject convictconvict
Derivation by Tone Mandarin 教 [tçj ɑʊ ] –level tone => ‘teach’ –falling tone => ‘something taught’ 將 [tçj ɑ ŋ] –level tone => ‘lead’ –falling tone => ‘one who leads’
Suppletion gowent beisamare goodbetter badworse
Zero Derivations NounVerb bikebike skateskate workwork winterwinter
Morphological Types Analytic (isolating) => One morpheme per word Synthetic => Polymorphemic words
Synthetic Types Agglutinating => Morphemes are easily segmentable. => One meaning per form Fusional => Not easily segmentable => Multiple meanings per form
Fusional Spanish [hablo]‘I am speaking.’ [habla]‘S/he is speaking.’ [hable]‘I spoke.’
Polysynthesis Onondaga (Iroquoian) Petwa?-ha-htu?ta? PatPast-Agr-lose ne?ohwista? themoney “Pat lost the money.”
Incorporated Petwa?-ha-hwist-ahtu?ta? PatPast-Agr-money-lose “Pat lost money.”
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