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Chapter 3: Using Variables and Constants Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Using Variables and Constants Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3: Using Variables and Constants Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition

2 2 Creating Variables and Named Constants Lesson A Objectives Create a procedure-level and module-level variable Select an appropriate data type for a variable Select an appropriate name for a variable

3 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 3 Creating Variables and Named Constants Lesson A Objectives (continued) Assign data to an existing variable Explain the scope and lifetime of a variable Create a named constant

4 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 4 Previewing the Completed Application To preview the completed Skate-Away Sales application: –Use the Run command on the Start menu to run the Skate (Skate.exe) file contained in the VBNET\Chap03 folder –An order form similar to the one that you created in Chapter 2 appears on the screen

5 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 5 Using Variables to Store Information Besides storing data in the properties of controls, a programmer also can store data, temporarily, in memory locations inside the computer The memory locations are called variables, because the contents of the locations can change as the program is running

6 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 6 Using Variables to Store Information (continued) One use for a variable is to hold information that is not stored in a control on the user interface You can also store the data contained in a control’s property in a variable

7 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 7 Selecting a Data Type for a Variable TypeMemory Required TypeMemory Required Byte1 byteShort2 bytes Char2 bytesInteger4 bytes Boolean2 bytesLong8 bytes Decimal16 bytesSingle4 bytes Double8 bytesStringVaries Date8 bytesObject4 bytes

8 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 8 Selecting a Data Type for a Variable (continued) Short, Integer, LongStore whole numbers Single, DoubleStore floating-point numbers DecimalStores numbers with a decimal point BooleanStores True and False CharStores one Unicode character ByteStores 8-bits of data DateStores date and time information StringStores a sequence of characters

9 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 9 Selecting a Name for a Variable The naming convention used in this book: –The name indicates only the variable’s purpose and is entered using lowercase letters –Use camel casing: if a variable’s name contains two or more words, you capitalize the first letter in the second and subsequent words The name assigned to a variable must follow the rules listed in Figure 3-4

10 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 10 Selecting a Name for a Variable (continued) Figure 3-4: Rules for variable names along with examples of valid and invalid names

11 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 11 Declaring a Variable You use a declaration statement to declare, or create, a variable Syntax: {Dim | Private | Static} variablename [As datatype][= initialvalue] Examples: –Dim hoursWorked As Integer –Dim dataOk As Boolean = True –Dim name As String, age As Integer

12 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 12 Assigning Data to an Existing Variable You use an assignment statement to assign a value to a variable while an application is running Syntax: variablename = value Examples: –quantityOrdered = 500 –firstName = “Mary” –state = Me.uiStateTextBox.Text –discountRate =.03

13 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 13 Assigning Data to an Existing Variable (continued) A literal constant is an item whose value does not change while the application is running String literal constants are enclosed in quotation marks, but numeric literal constants and variable names are not A literal type character forces a literal constant to assume a data type other than the one its form indicates

14 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 14 Assigning Data to an Existing Variable (continued) Figure 3-7: Literal type characters

15 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 15 Assigning Data to an Existing Variable (continued) A variable can store only one item of data at any one time When you use an assignment statement to assign another item to the variable, the new data replaces the existing data After data is stored in a variable, you can use the data in calculations

16 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 16 The Parse Method Every numeric data type in Visual Basic.NET has a Parse method that can be used to convert a string to that numeric data type Syntax: numericDataType.Parse(string) Example: Dim sales As Decimal sales = Decimal.Parse(Me.uiSalesTextBox.Text)

17 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 17 The Convert Class The Convert class contains methods to convert a numeric value to a specified data type Syntax: Convert.method(value) Example: Dim purchase As Double = 500 Dim tax As Decimal tax = Convert.ToDecimal(purchase) *.03D

18 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 18 The Convert Class (continued) Figure 3-9: Most commonly used methods contained in the Convert class

19 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 19 The Scope and Lifetime of a Variable A variable’s scope indicates which procedures in an application can use the variable The scope is determined by where the Dim, Public or Private statement is entered When you declare a variable in a procedure, the variable is called a procedure-level variable and is said to have procedure scope

20 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 20 The Scope and Lifetime of a Variable (continued) When you declare a variable in the form’s Declarations section, it is called a module-level variable and is said to have module scope Block-level variables are declared within specific blocks of code, such as within If...Then...Else statements or For...Next statements

21 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 21 The Scope and Lifetime of a Variable (continued) Creating a procedure-level variable –Created with the Dim keyword –The Dim statement is entered in an object’s event procedure –Only the procedure in which it is declared can use the variable –Removed from memory when the procedure ends

22 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 22 The Scope and Lifetime of a Variable (continued) Creating a module-level variable –Created with the Private keyword –Entered in a form’s Declarations section –Can be used by any of the procedures in the form –Removed from memory when the application ends or the form is destroyed

23 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 23 Named Constants A memory location whose contents cannot be changed while the program is running You create a named constant using the Const statement Syntax: Const constantname [As datatype] = expression Example: –Const PI As Double =

24 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 24 Option Explicit and Option Strict Visual Basic.NET provides a way to prevent you from using undeclared variables in your code –Enter the statement Option Explicit On in the General Declarations section of the Code Editor window

25 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 25 Option Explicit and Option Strict (continued) To eliminate the problems that occur as a result of implicit type conversions –Enter the Option Strict On statement in the General Declarations section of the Code Editor window

26 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 26 Option Explicit and Option Strict (continued) Type conversion rules used when the Option Strict On statement is used: –Strings will not be implicitly converted to numbers, and numbers will not be implicitly converted to strings –Lower-ranking data types will be implicitly promoted to higher-ranking types –Higher-ranking data types will not be implicitly demoted to lower-ranking data types; rather, a syntax error will occur

27 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 27 Modifying the Skate-Away Sales Application Lesson B Objectives Include a procedure-level and module-level variable in an application Concatenate strings Get user input using the InputBox function Include the ControlChars.NewLine constant in code Designate the default button for a form

28 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 28 Storing Information Using Variables You need to revise the Skate-Away Sales application’s TOE chart and the pseudocode for the Calculate Order button The uiCalcButton control’s Click event procedure now has two more tasks to perform: –It must calculate the sales tax –It must display the message, sales tax, and salesperson’s name in the uiMessageLabel control

29 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 29 Storing Information Using Variables (continued) Two additional objects (OrderForm and uiMessageLabel) are included in the revised TOE chart The OrderForm’s Load event procedure is responsible for getting the salesperson’s name when the application is started The uiMessageLabel control will display the message, sales tax, and salesperson’s name

30 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 30 Storing Information Using Variables (continued) As the revised TOE chart indicates, you need to: –Change the code in the uiCalcButton’s Click event procedure –Code the form’s Load event procedure

31 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 31 Modifying the Calculate Order Button’s Code You will first remove the existing code from the Calculate Order button’s Click event procedure You then will recode the procedure using variables in the equations Figure 3-18 shows the revised pseudocode for the Calculate Order button’s Click event procedure (changes made to the original pseudocode are shaded in the figure)

32 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 32 Modifying the Calculate Order Button’s Code (continued) Figure 3-18: Revised pseudocode for the Calculate Order button’s Click event procedure

33 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 33 Concatenating Strings Connecting strings together is called concatenating Use the concatenation operator, which is the ampersand (&), to concatenate strings in Visual Basic.NET When concatenating strings, be sure to include a space before and after the concatenation operator

34 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 34 Concatenating Strings (continued) ExampleResult firstName & lastNameSueChen firstName & “ “ & lastNameSue Chen lastName & “, “ & firstNameChen, Sue “She is “ & Convert.ToString(age) & “!”She is 21! “She is “ & age & “!”She is 21!

35 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 35 The InputBox Function The InputBox function displays one of Visual Basic.NET’s predefined dialog boxes Syntax: InputBox(prompt[, title][, defaultResponse]) Use sentence capitalization for the prompt, and book title capitalization for the title Has limitations: can’t control appearance and allows user to enter only one piece of data

36 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 36 The InputBox Function (continued) Figure 3-29: Example of a dialog box created by the InputBox function

37 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 37 The NewLine Character The NewLine character, which is Chr(13) & Chr(10), instructs the computer to issue a carriage return followed by a line feed The ControlChars.NewLine constant advances the insertion point to the next line on the screen The ControlChars.NewLine constant is an intrinsic constant, which is a named constant that is built into Visual Basic.NET

38 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 38 Designating a Default Button Can be selected by pressing the Enter key even when the button does not have the focus Set the form’s AcceptButton property to the desired button If used, it is typically the first button If a button’s action is destructive and irreversible, then it should not be the default button

39 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 39 Modifying the Skate-Away Sales Application’s Code Lesson C Objectives Include a static variable in code Code the TextChanged event procedure Create a procedure that handles more than one event

40 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 40 Modifying the Code in the Load and uiCalcButton Click Procedures Mr. Cousard would like to have the order form ask for the salesperson’s name each time an order is calculated Before making modifications, you should review the application’s documentation and revise the necessary documents Figure 3-44 shows the revised pseudocode for the Calculate Order button’s Click event procedure

41 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 41 Modifying the Code in the Load and uiCalcButton Click Procedures (continued) Figure 3-44: Revised pseudocode for the Calculate Order button

42 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 42 Static Variables A static variable is a local variable that retains its value when the procedure in which it is declared ends Syntax: Static variablename [As datatype] [= initialvalue] Removed from memory when application ends or form is removed from memory

43 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 43 Coding the TextChanged Event Procedure A control’s TextChanged event occurs when the contents of a control’s Text property change This can happen as a result of either the user entering data into the control, or the application’s code assigning data to the control’s Text property

44 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 44 Associating a Procedure with Different Objects or Events The keyword Handles appears in a procedure header and indicates the object and event associated with the procedure You can associate a procedure with more than one object and event –To do so: list each object and event, separated by commas, in the Handles section of the procedure header

45 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 45 Summary The syntax of a variable declaration statement is: {Dim | Private | Static} variablename [As datatype][= initialvalue] To create a procedure-level variable, enter the variable declaration statement in a procedure To create a module-level variable, enter the variable declaration statement in a form’s Declarations section

46 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 46 Summary (continued) To concatenate strings, use the concatenation operator —the ampersand (&) To display a dialog box containing a prompt, an input area, an OK button, and a Cancel button, use the InputBox function, whose syntax is InputBox(prompt[, title][, defaultResponse]) To make a button the default button, set the form’s AcceptButton property to the name of the button

47 Programming with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET, Second Edition 47 Summary (continued) To create a static variable, use a declaration statement that follows the syntax: Static variablename [As datatype] [= initialvalue] To process code when the contents of a control have changed, enter the code in the control’s TextChanged event To create a procedure for more than one object or event, list each object and event after the Handles keyword in the procedure


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