Presentation on theme: "SPONGE 1.What names can you think of for microscopic things that make people sick? 2.Name something that protects you from getting sick. Communicable and."— Presentation transcript:
SPONGE 1.What names can you think of for microscopic things that make people sick? 2.Name something that protects you from getting sick. Communicable and Chronic Disease - Day 1
Communicable and Chronic Diseases Section 1 The Spread of Disease
Types of Disease There are two main types of disease: Noncommunicable diseases are diseases that people are born with or are caused by how people live. Muhammad Ali – Parkinson’s Disease
Types of Disease Communicable diseases are infectious diseases spread from one living thing to another. Communicable diseases are spread by pathogens.
Types of Disease Pathogens are any microscopic germ that causes disease. Even Prions (proteins that are not technically alive) can cause infectious disease in people and cows.
Types of Disease Bacteria are single-celled organisms. A small percentage of them cause disease by releasing poison into your body. Viruses are the smallest common pathogen. When a virus enters a cell, it takes over the cell and causes it to make more viruses, which spread to other cells.
Types of Disease Fungi are single or multi- celled organisms that eat plant or animal tissue. Fungi cause athletes’ foot as well as a few other diseases. Helminthes are parasitic worms that infect a person’s digestive tract after uncooked pork or fish has been eaten.
The Spread of Disease Pathogens can be spread in many ways: –Contact with an infected person –Through the air (like a cough) –Contact with contaminated objects (like a needle) –Contact from an animal (like a mosquito bite) –Eating or drinking contaminated food or water
The Immune System The immune system removes harmful organisms from the blood and combats pathogens. Nearly all pathogens are kept out of your body by your skin, but if they do get in, the immune system takes over.
The Immune System Lymphocytes are white blood cells that help the body fight pathogens. When a pathogen enters the body, lymphocytes multiply in lymph tissue and fight the infection. There are two types: –B cells create antibodies that fight pathogens. –Helper T cells signal B cells to begin fighting pathogens.
Immunity The immune system helps people develop immunity. –Active Immunity is resistance to disease once the body has fought that disease. –For example, once you’ve had chicken pox, antibodies that kill chicken pox stay in your body for the rest of your life. –A vaccine is a dead or weakened pathogen that is put into your body. Your immune system produces antibodies to the pathogens and can more easily fight off a stronger version of the pathogen later in life.
Immunity Anther type of immunity, called Passive Immunity, is immunity that results from injecting antibodies into a person’s bloodstream. –Instead of making a person immune to a disease, this helps them fight disease better with the help of extra antibodies.
Common Bacterial Diseases Strep throat is a bacterial infection of the throat. If not treated, it can develop into rheumatic fever, which damages heart valves.
Common Bacterial Diseases Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection of the lungs that can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs. At its worst, the disease causes tubercles to form in the lungs, resulting in bloody coughing, fever, weight loss and even death.
Common Bacterial Diseases Meningitis is a swelling of the membranes around the brain and the spinal chord that can result in death. The disease is spread through saliva, and is a severe threat to college students. Meningitis can also be viral, but this form is less harmful.
Common Bacterial Diseases Diphtheria spreads through coughs and sneezes or from any object that has infected saliva droplets on it. Infected people have a hard skin form in their throat that can block breathing. The skin can produce toxins that badly damage organs like the heart. Fewer people get diphtheria since the DTaP Vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) became common.
Common Bacterial Diseases Pertussis is a very infectious disease, most common to people between the ages of It causes a deep, uncontrollable “whooping” cough. Droplets that are sprayed in the air spread the disease. This disease used to kill hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. before the DTaP vaccine was created. Pertussis is becoming more common. The vaccine does not always work, and the disease is becoming resistant to antibiotics.
The Problem with Antibiotics When antibiotics were first introduced in the 1940’s, they were considered a miracle drug. They work by destroying the cell membranes or nuclei of bacteria. Antibiotics come in many forms including pills and soaps. However, Antibiotics should only be used when a person is sick with a dangerous bacterial disease. They do not work on viruses.
The Problem with Antibiotics In recent decades, bacteria have adapted to resist most antibiotics. This is because people over-use antibiotics (like soap), which gives bacteria many chances to adapt to these medicines. Also, many sick people stop taking their antibiotics when they start feeling better instead of continuing to take them for the entire prescription time. Misusing Antibiotics = Breeding Super Bacteria