Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University Prof. Dr. Metha Wanapat Dr. Anusorn.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University Prof. Dr. Metha Wanapat Dr. Anusorn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University Prof. Dr. Metha Wanapat Dr. Anusorn Cherdthong 130740 Tropical Feed Resources and Feeding Technology

2 Ruminant Nutrition and Feeding: Feeds, Rumen, Microorganisms Productivity

3 L.Longitudinal grooveVentral Sac Cranial groove Cranial Sac Dorsal coranary groove Caudo-dorsal blind Sac Caudal groove Caudo-ventral blind Sac Ventral coronary groove abomasum reticulum reticulo-ruminal fold Left or Parietal Surface esophagus Dorsal curvature

4 Right or Visceral surface Cranial pillar Diaphragm R.Longitud- inal groove Duodenum Pylorus Abomasum Omasum

5 5 8 7 11 10 9 6 4 3 2 1 1= esophagus 2= cardia3-4 =esophageal groove 5= reticulum 6=space between reticulum and rumen cranial sac 7= cranial sac of rumen 8= ventral of rumen 9= caudal-ventral blind sac 10= caudal-dorsal blind sac 11= dorsal of rumen

6 A B C A B A= reticulo-ruminal foldA = cardia B=esophgusB= reticulo-amasal orifice C= esophagus/reticular groove

7 Factors affecting on reticulo- rumen development : I. Type of feeds - Solid/dry feed - Roughage stimulate rumen contraction as “ physical stimulant ” rumen weight and thickness papillae development

8 II. Fermentation process: - Continuous fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), C 2,C 3 C 4 -C 4 > C 3 > C 2 as “ chemical stimulant ” - VFAs increase osmotic pressure of stratum basal cells thus mitogenic effect

9 Time spent for activities in ruminants Eating/grazing 1/3 Resting1/3 overlapping Ruminanting1/3 Eructating

10 Reticulo-rumen motility/contraction Schalk and Amadon (1928) “ Biphasic contraction” Primary contraction or Mixing cycle Secondary contraction or Eructation contraction many or many not occur after CP

11 012345 Ret R R R R PSPS Biphasic contractions Schalk and Amadon(1928) P~ 50-60 sec S~30 sec

12 Reticulo-rumen motility Phillipson (1939) Cyclical activity of rumen Phillipson and Reid (1960) reported four major patterns of contractions – 1-R,D – 2-R,D,V – 3-R,D,D,V – 4-R,D,V,D,V –R = reticulum, D = dorsal, V= ventral

13 Dziuk and McCauley (1965) 1- R, Dp, CDBp, Vp 2-R, Dp, CDBs, Ds,Vs 3-R, Dp, CDBp, Vp, CDBs, Ds, Vs p= primary, s= secondary 2,3,4 (Phillipson and Reid) = 1,2,3 (Dziuk and McCauley ) CDB = caudo-dorsal blind sac

14 Wyburn (1980) Illustrated on sequential rumen contractions 121 steps 116 (A contraction) rumination 17-21 (B contraction) eructation A contraction is independent of B contraction A and B can occur simultaneously

15 Rumination process: Regurgitation Swallowing Re-mastication Re-insalivation Reswallowing

16 Mechanics of rumination and eructation: How………. Initial contraction of reticulum as biphasic Increase fluid pressure around cardia More fluid flows to cardia

17 Rumination…….. Diaphragm sharply contracts creates negative pressure in trachea Esophageal becomes flat except area connecting to cardia start to enlarge

18 Rumination……... Ingesta/digesta in rumen flows back to esophagus Regurgitation occurs, ingesta moves back to esophagus by antiperistalic wave

19 Triphasic contraction TC occurs as an extrareticular contraction and occurs during resting or eating phase, prior to usual biphasic /primary contraction Thus stimulates rumination to occur regurgitation

20 Rumination is essential and useful: Mastication of particles for finner, mix well for efficient fermentation Increase salivary secretion thus enhance rumen buffering capacity

21 Rumination…….. Increase rate of passage (RT), decrease rumen retention time (RRT) thus improve DM intake Maintain rumen microbial population for a balanced rumen/optimal rumen ecology Enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production

22 Saliva and rumen buffering capacity NaHCO 3 NaCl + H 2 CO 3 weak acid Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O weak alkaline +NaOH +HCl

23 Optimal rumen ecology pH 6.5-7 (6.7) temperature 39 o C Continuous fermentation rumen NH 3 -N (15-30 mg%)

24 Mechanics of eructation E belching/ getting rid of fermentation gases E occurs during secondary contraction of rumen peak of fermentation > two secondary contractions occur

25 Eructation………. Gas produced in adult cattle 2 l/min in adult sheep 5 l/h Major gases CO 2 (40-70%), CH 4 (25-45%) others (O 2, N, H 2, H 2 S)

26 2 DAYS 4 DAYS 8-10 DAYS 12-20 DAYS CELLULOLYTIC CONSORTIA POLYCENTRIC FUNGI PROTOZAO ZOOSPORE MONOCENTRIC FUNGI MYCOPLASMAS UREA OXYGEN 38 hr Diagrammatic representation of the sequential development of the microbial ecology of the newborn ruminant.

27 Rumen microorganisms (Hungate, 1966) 10 10 -10 12 cells/ml rumen fluid cellulolytic bacteria amylolytic proteolytic NH 3 -N utilizing etc

28 Major species of rumen bacteria degrading cell-wall polysaccharides. Cell wall polysaccharideSpecies CelluloseBacteroides succinogenes Ruminococcus flavefaciens Ruminococcus albus] Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens Cillobacterium cellulosolvens\ Clostridium lochheadii Cellulomonas fimi Eubacterium spp. HemicelluloseBatyrivibrio fibrisolvens Ruminococcus albus Ruminococcus flavefaciens Bacteroides ruminacola Peptic substancesAll the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic species plus: Lachnospira multiparus Streptococcus bovis Succinovibrio dextrinosoluvens Source: Cheng et al. (1984)

29 Bacteria on feed particles

30 Protozoa Ciliated protozoa 10 4-10 6 cells/ml larger > bacteria 38 micron in length 15 micron in width moves rapidly

31 Holotrich- Subclass –absorbs sugar Entodinimorph (tuft) –digest starch stores surplus CHO Can not use NPN engulf bacleria 200-10 6 cells/h 1% bacteria/min defaunation

32 Protozoa and adhered methanogenic bacteria

33 Rumen fungi ~ 8% of total rum microbes ~ 20 genera low in number digest fiber with bacteria

34 A= randomly association or by chemoattractants B= by bacterial glycocalyx and binding protein C = produce sister cells/digestive pits are visible D= form rich biofilm, digestion accelerated e= Portion of biofilm dissociate from feed particles F= others remained on feed particles and pass to lower digestive tract Feed particle


36 Distribution of rumen bacteria 75% = bacteroa; adjered tp feeds 20% = flow in rumen fluid 5% = adhered to inner surface fo rumen epithelium

37 Rumen consortium

38 Rumen Fungi


40 Rumen Protozoa and fungi

41 Good luck!!!

Download ppt "Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University Prof. Dr. Metha Wanapat Dr. Anusorn."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google