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Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology

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Presentation on theme: "Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ruminant digestive system and rumen ecology
Prof. Dr. Metha Wanapat Dr. Anusorn Cherdthong Tropical Feed Resources and Feeding Technology Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Khon Kaen University

2 Ruminant Nutrition and Feeding:
Feeds , Rumen, Microorganisms Productivity

3 Left or Parietal Surface
Dorsal curvature Dorsal coranary groove reticulo-ruminal fold Caudo-dorsal blind Sac Cranial groove esophagus Caudal groove Cranial Sac L.Longitudinal grooveVentral Sac Caudo-ventral blind Sac reticulum Ventral coronary groove abomasum

4 Right or Visceral surface
Diaphragm R.Longitud- inal groove Cranial pillar Duodenum Pylorus Omasum Abomasum

5 1 11 2 3 6 4 10 7 5 9 8 1= esophagus 2= cardia 3-4 =esophageal groove
5= reticulum 6=space between reticulum and rumen cranial sac 7= cranial sac of rumen 8= ventral of rumen 9= caudal-ventral blind sac 10= caudal-dorsal blind sac 11= dorsal of rumen

6 A A C B B A= reticulo-ruminal fold A = cardia
B=esophgus B= reticulo-amasal orifice C= esophagus/reticular groove

7 Factors affecting on reticulo-rumen development :
I. Type of feeds - Solid/dry feed - Roughage stimulate rumen contraction as “ physical stimulant ” rumen weight and thickness papillae development

8 II. Fermentation process:
- Continuous fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), C2,C3C4 -C4 > C3 > C2 as “ chemical stimulant” - VFAs increase osmotic pressure of stratum basal cells thus mitogenic effect

9 Time spent for activities in ruminants
Eating/grazing 1/3 Resting 1/ overlapping Ruminanting 1/ Eructating

10 Reticulo-rumen motility/contraction
Schalk and Amadon (1928) “ Biphasic contraction” Primary contraction or Mixing cycle Secondary contraction or Eructation contraction many or many not occur after CP

11 Biphasic contractions Schalk and Amadon(1928)
P~ sec S~30 sec P S Ret R R R R Biphasic contractions Schalk and Amadon(1928)

12 Reticulo-rumen motility
Phillipson (1939) Cyclical activity of rumen Phillipson and Reid (1960) reported four major patterns of contractions 1-R,D 2-R,D,V 3-R,D,D,V 4-R,D,V,D,V R = reticulum, D = dorsal, V= ventral

13 Dziuk and McCauley (1965) 1- R, Dp, CDBp, Vp 2-R, Dp, CDBs, Ds,Vs
3-R, Dp, CDBp, Vp, CDBs, Ds, Vs p= primary, s= secondary 2,3,4 (Phillipson and Reid) = 1,2,3 (Dziuk and McCauley) CDB = caudo-dorsal blind sac

14 Wyburn (1980) Illustrated on sequential rumen contractions 1 21 steps
(A contraction) rumination 17-21 (B contraction) eructation A contraction is independent of B contraction A and B can occur simultaneously

15 Rumination process: Regurgitation Swallowing Re-mastication
Re-insalivation Reswallowing

16 Mechanics of rumination and eructation: How……….
Initial contraction of reticulum as biphasic Increase fluid pressure around cardia More fluid flows to cardia

17 Rumination…….. Diaphragm sharply contracts creates negative pressure in trachea Esophageal becomes flat except area connecting to cardia start to enlarge

18 Rumination……... Ingesta/digesta in rumen flows back to esophagus
Regurgitation occurs, ingesta moves back to esophagus by antiperistalic wave

19 Triphasic contraction
TC occurs as an extrareticular contraction and occurs during resting or eating phase , prior to usual biphasic /primary contraction Thus stimulates rumination to occur regurgitation

20 Rumination is essential and useful:
Mastication of particles for finner, mix well for efficient fermentation Increase salivary secretion thus enhance rumen buffering capacity

21 Rumination…….. Increase rate of passage (RT), decrease rumen retention time (RRT) thus improve DM intake Maintain rumen microbial population for a balanced rumen/optimal rumen ecology Enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production

22 Saliva and rumen buffering capacity
NaCl + H2 CO3 weak acid +HCl NaHCO3 +NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O weak alkaline

23 Optimal rumen ecology pH 6.5-7 (6.7) temperature 39oC
Continuous fermentation rumen NH3-N (15-30 mg%)

24 Mechanics of eructation
E belching/ getting rid of fermentation gases E occurs during secondary contraction of rumen peak of fermentation > two secondary contractions occur

25 Eructation………. Gas produced in adult cattle 2 l/min in adult sheep 5 l/h Major gases CO2 (40-70%), CH4 (25-45%) others (O2, N, H2, H2S)

26 Diagrammatic representation of the sequential development of
2 DAYS 4 DAYS 8-10 DAYS 12-20 DAYS UREA POLYCENTRIC FUNGI CELLULOLYTIC CONSORTIA PROTOZAO OXYGEN ZOOSPORE 38 hr MONOCENTRIC FUNGI MYCOPLASMAS Diagrammatic representation of the sequential development of the microbial ecology of the newborn ruminant.

27 Rumen microorganisms (Hungate, 1966)
cells/ml rumen fluid cellulolytic bacteria amylolytic proteolytic NH3-N utilizing etc

28 Major species of rumen bacteria degrading cell-wall polysaccharides
Major species of rumen bacteria degrading cell-wall polysaccharides. Cell wall polysaccharide Species Cellulose Bacteroides succinogenes Ruminococcus flavefaciens Ruminococcus albus] Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens Cillobacterium cellulosolvens\ Clostridium lochheadii Cellulomonas fimi Eubacterium spp. Hemicellulose Batyrivibrio fibrisolvens Ruminococcus albus Ruminococcus flavefaciens Bacteroides ruminacola Peptic substances All the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic species plus: Lachnospira multiparus Streptococcus bovis Succinovibrio dextrinosoluvens Source: Cheng et al. (1984)

29 Bacteria on feed particles

30 Protozoa Ciliated protozoa 104-106 cells/ml larger > bacteria
38 micron in length 15 micron in width moves rapidly

31 Holotrich- Subclass absorbs sugar Entodinimorph (tuft) digest starch stores surplus CHO Can not use NPN engulf bacleria cells/h 1% bacteria/min defaunation

32 Protozoa and adhered methanogenic bacteria

33 Rumen fungi ~ 8% of total rum microbes ~ 20 genera low in number
digest fiber with bacteria

34 Feed particle A= randomly association or by chemoattractants
B= by bacterial glycocalyx and binding protein C = produce sister cells/digestive pits are visible D= form rich biofilm, digestion accelerated e= Portion of biofilm dissociate from feed particles F= others remained on feed particles and pass to lower digestive tract

35 ADHERENT CELL NONADHERENT CELL Glycocalyx Cell Cell Cellulose

36 Distribution of rumen bacteria
75% = bacteroa; adjered tp feeds 20% = flow in rumen fluid 5% = adhered to inner surface fo rumen epithelium

37 Rumen consortium

38 Rumen Fungi

39 Rumen Fungi

40 Rumen Protozoa and fungi

41 Good luck!!!


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