2Sensory “receptors”In order to respond to your environment, or maintain homeostasis, you must first “sense” that stimulusSensation = awareness of a stimulusThe brain becomes aware that there is light because photoreceptors send this signal to the brainPerception = conscious awareness of sensationsMore “higher” level integration/association involved in perceptionLight is yellow, it’s in the shape of a “c”…it’s a banana
4Sensory “receptors”You have sensory “receptors” for each form of stimulusSensory receptors have some unique traitsWhile most are neurons, some in fact are specialized cells that can communicate with neurons by releasing neurotransmitterRemember that every cell with a nucleus will have the same DNA…every cell can therefore produce ANY protein that you’d likely find in your bodyMany sensory cells can “adapt”Gradually reduce their action potentials if continuously stimulated (sharp pain – dull pain)Gas station attendants who don’t smell the gas etc.Other sensory cells do not “adapt”Will continue to send action potentials as long as the stimulus is presentBright light
5Sensory “receptors” “Adaptation” Sensory receptors that reduce their action potentials when constantly stimulated are said to be undergoing “receptor desensitization”Are desensitizing themselves to the stimulusCan be through 2 distinct processes:Hyperpolarizing themselves…creating a more strong membrane potential (MORE positive outside, MORE negative inside)… “supercharging” the battery across the plasma membraneReducing the number of receptors on their surfaceEndocytose regions of neurolemma or plasma membrane into the cell body…reduces their exposure to their external environment
6Sensory “receptors”Mechanoreceptors: fire action potentials in response to distortion of the cell or the receptor on that cellThermoreceptors: fire action potentials in response changes in temperatureYou have more “cold” receptor cells than “hot” receptors cells in your skinPhotoreceptors: fire action potentials in response light or colorIn your eyeChemoreceptors: fire action potentials in response to changes in their extracellular chemical environmentOsmo-receptors in your brain constantly check the osmolarity of bloodPain receptors: fire action potentials in response to damage to nearby tissue
7Sensory “receptors” Receptor cells can also be divided into: General senses: throughout the bodyOften utilize single receptor cells, or clusters of receptor cellsSpecial senses: retained in skull (close to the brain)Utilize “specialized” sense organsTaste, smell, sight, hearing & balance
9MechanoreceptorsIn skeletal muscle, and within the tendons that attach muscle to bone, there are specialized mechanoreceptors. These “proprioceptors” allow the brain to monitor the result of the motor outputs.The “proprioceptors” accomplish this through a combination of specially-shaped muscle cells, and the neurons that wrap themselves around these “spindle” cells.
10Thermal receptorsThermal sensation usually close to the surface of the skinNormally a free neuron (not wrapped in any special tissue)Classic example of “adaptive” receptorsHot shower gradually warms “down” because thermoreceptors are reducing their action potential ratesUnless you run out of hot waterRecall that you have separate cold & hot receptorsNumerically, have more cold receptors than hot
11Pain receptors Pain receptors are often called “free nerve endings” Neurons that have no special “structural” sensor interface…just a bundle of dendrites spread over a general areaPain receptors in the skin (integument) are usually close to the surface of the skinOften in the same location as thermoreceptors for cold & heat sensation
12Pain receptorsBear in mind that pain receptors are neurons that can sense Substance PThe surrounding tissue will release Substance P (substance “pain”) and the pain receptor neurons will have receptors for this Substance PMost of your internal organs DO NOT have these neuronsYou can’t really feel pain in many of your organs…but they can release Substance P“referred pain”…release of Substance P from a non-pain-innervated organ that triggers pain receptors in another region of the body
13Pain receptorsSince many of your internal organs do not have free nerve endings that express or produce Substance P receptors, these organs do not have a direct “pain” receptor. These internal organs release Substance P and it characteristically triggers pain receptors in other areas of the body.
14Special senses Gustation: taste sensation “taste buds” = specialized clusters of chemoreceptors in your mouthNOT just on your tongue (you press candy or any other type of food onto the top or sides of your mouth…there are taste buds in those areas as well)Taste buds are not on the surfaceActually “folded” deep within the epidermal tissue that makes up your tongue & oral cavityOnly have 4 tastes: sweet, salt, bitter, sourAll your tastes are based from combinations of these 4 taste sensationsTHERE IS NO MAP OF TASTES ON YOUR TONGUE!!!Your book is incorrect…this information has surfaced in the past 5 years…and it takes about 5 years to write a textbook
15Gustation 3 things to remember: You need saliva to carry the taste deep into these folds/papilla (ever try to taste something with a dry mouth?)You have taste buds all over your oral cavity (not just on your tongue)The 4 different tastes are distributed evenly throughout your tongue…you don’t have more sweet “buds” on the tip of your tongue
16Special senses Olfaction: smell Like taste, uses special chemoreceptorsIn nasal cavity, retains these chemoreceptor neurons within a specialized sensory structureNasal cavity is shaped to swirl incoming air up against the top of your nasal sinusChemoreceptor cells placed at the top of the nasal sinus will detect chemicals in the airDeliver neural impulses to brain
19Special senses Sight More specialized sensory structure Eye, eylids, muscles to control the eye etc.Eye movement controlled by 3 separate nerves per eyeTotal of 6 muscles to control the movement of 1 eyeVery low ratio of nerve:muscle cells for very fine controlOptic nerve carries nervous impulses from photoreceptors in the eyeTotal of 4 nerves devoted to each eye (3 for movement, 1 for the actual sight/optic signal)The bicep brachii muscle in your arm is innervated by 1 nerve that also controls a number of other muscles, as well as “senses” a large region around your shoulder
20Special senses Sight Eye itself is a very specialized sensory organ 3 layers of special tissueOuter “sclera” that also contains the corneaCornea is the primary “light refracting” or light “bending” part of your eyeLargely specialized proteins, not many cells, and not many blood vesselsMiddle “choroid” layer (where many blood vessels are located)Inner “retina” layer
22Special senses Sight Middle choroid layer has dark melanin pigment To absorb light and keep it within the eyeInner retinal layer has rod and cone cellsRods = light receptorsCones = color receptorsRetinal layer is not physically attached to the choroid layerActually pressed against the choroid layer by internal pressure created by the volume of vitreous humorVitreous humor is one of the few stable parts in your body (doesn’t change over your life…formed as you’re an fetus; what you have now will likely not change much in 10 years)Cornea/lens region filled with different fluid = aqueous humor (constantly being replaced)
23Special sensesSightCones are clustered within a specific area of the eyeFovea centralis (fovea)Color sensation is clustered in 1 areaRods are spread throughout the eyeLight sensation is dispersed, color sensation is “focused”Both rods & cones do not face the light…they face the pigmented choroid layer (away from the light)Light hits the choroid layer and “stays” thereRod & cone cells then sense this “retained” light and send impulses back through the optic nerve“blind spot” in the eye = where the optic nerve penetrates the eyeball/retinal layer
24Special sensesSightRods & cones are not going to help if you cannot focus the imageLens = focusRemember that cornea = light bendingLight passes through the cornea, then through lenseTHEN, through vitreous humor and onto the choroid layer
28Special sensesSightOnce light/color is sensed by the rod & cone cells, the stimulate the visual neurons to fire action potentialsOnly after enough color or light has stimulated these cells will they release their neurotransmitterSimilar to pain…the neurons themselves don’t directly sense light/color…the nearby cells tell them that there is light/colorSignals are then relayed back to the brain via the optic nerve
29The reason why light sensitivity requires so many more rod cells, rather than color sensitivity: for each optic nerve fiber/cell, there are many more rod cells that must influence the bipolar cells (signal concentration) to fire an action potential. The bipolar cells for light are less inclined to fire action potentials than those for color.
30Optic Nerve & Hemidecussation Note how about 40% of the light/color signals from the middle of your right eye will “hemidecussate” or transfer over to the left side of the brain. Also note how about 60% of the signals will remain on the right side of your brain
31Special sensesSightWhereas you can only taste 4 different types, you can normally see over 1000 different colors and shades1000’s of different cone cell “subtypes” can sense different colors10X as many rod cells as cone cells help you distinguish the shade or amount of lightRemember that your brain puts all these signals together to tell you what you seeColor blind = lacking cone cells of a particular color sensitivity
32Special senses Hearing Hearing & balance rely on the ear Very complicated organ with multiple tasksOuter ear = pinna/auricle (cartilage)Serves to “focus” the sound waves (air pressure) into the auditory canalMiddle ear = from the “ear drum” / tympanic membrane to the cochleaActs to transfer sound in air into mechanical movement (solid)Inner ear = fluid filled organsCochlea = sound processing (sound into liquid medium)Semicircular canals & vestibule = balance/equilbrium
33The middle ear contains the 3 smallest bones in your body: malleus (attached to the tympanic membrane/eardrum), incus & stapes. These 3 bones “articulate” with each other to amplify the sound pressure waves that reach the eardrum.The middle ear also relies on equal air pressure between on both sides of the eardrum. This is why there is an auditory tube/estucian canal. This tube is connected to the back of your throat…ever get a sore throat that turned into an ear infection…ever have to “pop” your ears by opening your mouth?
34Special senses Hearing The cochlea is the region where sound pressure waves are converted to neural impulsesPitch/tone = frequency of the waveIntensity = volume (how high the waves are)Cochlea filled with fluid3 distinct “tubes” that wrap around forming a coil (2.5 turns)
41Sound ProcessingOuter hair cells receive motor impulses from brain. These cells can actually produce sound by themselves (when stimulated by the CNS). This is in effort to “fine tune” your sense of hearing.Inner hair cells are loosely embedded in the tectonic plate. It took over 50 years of controversy for scientists to begrudgingly agree that the inner hair cells are the true “hearing” cells.Despite the differences in apparent function of these two “rows” of hair cells, they BOTH contribute to “hearing” or sound processing. One cannot function without the other; outer hair cells can still transfer sound impulses as neural signals.
42LOUD NOISES!!!!The effect of loud noises and hearing loss = formation of scar tissue where hair cells used to be. You can “squish” the hair cells with enough sound pressure (remember that the cells sense “sound” by getting squished by the pressure) that they can die! Interestingly/scary fact: despite the fact that loud noises can damage hearing, constant droning sounds (like the fan on your computer, an air conditioner etc.) have a more long-term effect on hearing loss than a single rock concert!
43Special senses Equilibrium 2 regions of the inner ear involved in your sense of balance:Vestibule (contains utricle & saccule)Semicircular canalsAll rely on hair cells similar the hair cells in the cochleaInstead of pressure, these cells are embedded in special “gels”Vestibule gel has crystals of calcium carbonate (otoliths)Semicircular canals have “cupula” gelAs your head moves, the fluid in these regions moves the respective gels, and this then moves the hair cells
44The role of otoliths in “static equilibrium” = otoliths add mass that resists movement. If you tilt your head or jump up, these crystals will want to stay still/static. This drags the gel and pulls the hair cells.Dynamic equilibrium = movement of fluid through the semicircular canals. As fluid moves one way through the respective canal, it will trigger the hair depolarize faster or slower. These hair cells always fire…moving the gel will trigger faster or slower stimulatory pulses to the nerve fibers.
45EquilibriumPlacing the hair cells & different gels in strategic locations in the vestibule allows complete equilibrium locationUtricle = tilting head anterior/posterior (nodding)Really more for horizontal movement; when you accelerate in a carSaccule = vertical movement (jumping up and down)The utricle & saccule are more responsible for STATIC equilibriumBecause the gels have otoliths (crystals), they are pulled by gravityIf you hold your head constantly sideways etc.
46EquilibriumAnother set of receptor cells located in the ampulla of each semicircular canal senses rotational movementsHairs embedded into gel = cupula (no otolith crystals)As head spins, endolymph moves through canals and pushes/pulls on cupulaMovement of cupula then flexes hair cells, triggering impulsesLateral semicicular canal = shaking head “NO”Anterior semicircular canal = nodding head “YES”Posterior semicircular canal = tilting head “Like…totally”Remember that the semicircular canals are responsible for dynamic equilibrium (telling you what’s going on when you MOVE).
47Integration of the Senses Recall that at least 80% of your sensory information is taken in by your eyes (vision)Despite your ear (semicircular canals & vestibules) measuring equilibrium, your eyes also play an important roleWatching a first-person movie like Star Wars, you sometimes feel like you’re movingRemember gustation involves your sense of olfaction as wellIf you cannot smell well, you cannot taste as well neither
48Integration of the Senses Where patients might lose a sense (hearing, sight, smell)They do not develop “super” senses with their remaining sensesYou only have what you’re born with (you can train them to be more sensitive, but you cannot develop super hearing etc.)If you lose 1 sense, you have to place more emphasis and attention on your remaining sensesThey’re they same as before, you just focus on using them more effectively
49Hearing defects External otitis = outer ear infection Middle ear infection = acute purulent otitis mediaMigration of infection due to common cold, flu, tonsillitusIn children, auditory canal is very short and straight (in adults, auditory canal develops a curve)Infection and inflammation can close auditory canalIf pressure builds in middle ear, can rupture tympanic membraneOtosclerosis = ossification/fusion/degradation of ossiclesAuditory deafness:Conduction deafness = defect in outer or middle ear (otosclerosis, infection etc.)Sound is not conducted to the inner earPerceptive/neural deafness = neural defect in inner ear
50Cochlear implantsSurgical implant of a microphone, with electrical leads that feed through the cochleaIf you have damaged hair cells, you can use the electrical leads to trigger the neurons insteadOnly used for patients with drastic hearing loss in BOTH ears (monoaural patients not usually candidates)Where you can normally hear many different frequencies, a cochlear implant is limited to about 24 frequenciesVoices, sounds tend to be very “robotic” and monotoneHaving more frequencies = more electrodes…run into trouble with electrode “bleeding” where 1 electrode triggers too many neuronsElectrodes are placed in the cochlear duct (farther away from the actual neurons than the hair cells…at that distance, electrical impulses can “bleed” quite a distance)
52Equilibrium defects Meniere’s disease: Chemical change in the fluid of the inner earVertigo, dizziness, hearing loss, tinnitusOften treated with surgery (remove a region of the inner ear…usually a region of the vestibule)Usually treated with diuretics (change blood volume = change in chemical composition of the fluid in the inner ear)