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LEARNING PRESENTED BY DR.DALEEP PARIMOO The cognitive ( Latin: cognoscere, "to know", "to conceptualize" or "to recognize" ) process of acquiring skill.

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING PRESENTED BY DR.DALEEP PARIMOO The cognitive ( Latin: cognoscere, "to know", "to conceptualize" or "to recognize" ) process of acquiring skill."— Presentation transcript:



3 The cognitive ( Latin: cognoscere, "to know", "to conceptualize" or "to recognize" ) process of acquiring skill or knowledge Latin WHAT IS LEARNING

4 Definitions

5 L EARNING IS : 1.“A persisting change in human performance or performance potential... (brought) about as a result of the learner’s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll, 1994, pp. 8-9). 2.“The relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer, 1982, p. 1040). 3. “An enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell, 1986, p. 412).

6 L EARNING T HEORIES There are 6 main theories of learning 1.Behaviorism 2.Cognitivism 3.Social Learning Theory 4.Social Constructivism 5.Multiple Intelligences 6.Brain-Based Learning

7 T HEORIES : B EHAVIOURAL Primary Focus Observable behaviour Stimulus-response connections Assumptions Learning is a result of environmental forces Subcategories Contiguity Respondent (Classical) Operant (Instrumental) Major Theorists Thorndike Pavlov Watson Skinner Principles Time/place pairings Biological basis of behaviour Consequences Modelling

8 B EHAVIOURAL : S UBCATEGORIES l Contiguity –Stimulus and response connected and associated in time and space –Example: The “ Bathrobe”. l Respondent or Classical Conditioning –We make associations with stimuli –Example: The Pavlov Dog.The Pavlov Dog. l Operant or Instrumental Conditioning –Learning is the result of the application of consequences; that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli. –Examples: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement

9 Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts as a clean slate and behavior is shaped through positive or negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Positive indicates the application of a stimulus; Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner. Lots of (early) behaviorist work was done with animals (e.g. Pavlov’s dogs) and generalized to humans.

10 B EHAVIORISM Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors Focuses solely on observable behaviors A biological basis for learning Learning is context-independent Classical & Operant Conditioning Reflexes (Pavlov’s Dogs) Feedback/Reinforcement (Skinner’s Pigeon Box)

11 BEHAVIORISM learning occurs through with the environment Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology that assumes that learning occurs through with the environment. Two other interactions assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. Behaviorism

12 B EHAVIORISM Confined to observable and measurable behavior Classical Conditioning - Pavlov Operant Conditioning - Skinner

13 BEHAVIORISM One of the best-known aspects of behavioral learning theory is classical conditioning. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. In order to understand how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.

14 BEHAVIORISM The Unconditioned Stimulus  The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.unconditioned stimulus The Unconditioned Response  The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response.unconditioned response

15 BEHAVIORISM  The Conditioned Stimulus The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.conditioned stimulus  The Conditioned Response The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.conditioned response

16 Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning.

17 B EHAVIORISM Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S R A stimulus is presented in order to get a response:

18 Pavlov’s Dogs In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled “psychic reflexes.” While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlov’s dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder.

19 Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlov’s dogs, as predicted, responded by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs’ salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed..

20 In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the dog’s salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food

21 John B. Watson further extended Pavlov’s work and applied it to human beings. In 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11 month old infant child. The goal of the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of a white rat by pairing the white rat with a very loud, jarring noise (UCS). At first, Albert showed no sign of fear when he was presented with rats, but once the rat was repeatedly paired with the loud noise (UCS), Albert developed a fear of rats. It could be said that the loud noise (UCS) induced fear (UCR). The implications of Watson’s experiment suggested that classical conditioning could cause some phobias in humans.

22 From W. Huitt and J. Hummel 2.1 Models: Pavlov’s Dog



25 B EHAVIORISM Classical Conditioning - Pavlov SUS UR CSUS CR

26 O PERANT C ONDITIONING Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning ) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between behavior and a consequence for that behavior.

27 Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner which is why it is referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.

28 E XAMPLES OF O PERANT C ONDITIONING Case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise/incentive/promotions. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior. The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors. For example, a child may be told he will lose recess privileges if he talks out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors.

29 K EY C OMPONENTS OF O PERANT C ONDITIONING  A reinforcer is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers  Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward.  Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.

30 E XAMPLES OF O PERANT C ONDITIONING  Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment:  Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.  Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior decreases

31 B EHAVIORISM Operant Conditioning - Skinner The response is made first, then reinforcement follows.

32 P RINCIPLES OF C LASSICAL C ONDITIONING  Acquisition AcquisitionAcquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened. For example, if you are trying to teach a dog to shake in response to a verbal command, you can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog shakes in response to only the verbal command. Once the response has been acquired, you can gradually reinforce the shake response to make sure the behavior is well learned.

33 P RINCIPLES OF C LASSICAL C ONDITIONING  Extinction ExtinctionExtinction occurs when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear.

34  Sponteneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery.  Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a rat has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, it will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus. P RINCIPLES OF C LASSICAL C ONDITIONING

35 Discrimination Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds.

36 B EHAVIORISM IN THE C LASSROOM Rewards and punishments Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher Lecture-based, highly structured

37 C RITIQUES OF B EHAVIORISM  Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed  Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher- centric environment  One size fits all  Knowledge itself is given and absolute  Programmed instruction & teacher-proofing

38 T HEORIES : C OGNITIVE Primary Focus Mental behaviour Knowledge Intelligence Critical Thinking Assumptions Learning is a result of mental operations/ processing Subcategories Information Processing Hierarchical Developmental Critical Thinking Major Theorists Bloom Piaget Gagne Principles Memory is limited Changes in complexity Changes over time Good thinking requires standards

39 C OGNITIVE S UBCATEGORIES l Information Processing –study of the structure and function of mental processing within specific contexts, environments, or ecologies. –Example: Stage Model of Information ProcessingStage Model of Information Processing l Hierarchical –The classification of educational goals and objectives –Example: Bloom’s TaxonomyBloom’s Taxonomy l Critical Thinking –How we apply our cognitive processes to evaluating arguments (propositions) and making decisions –Examples: Thinking to a standard. Critical Thinking ModelThinking to a standardCritical Thinking Model l Developmental –stages in cognitive development –Example: PiagetPiaget

40 C OGNITIVISM Grew in response to Behaviorism Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable way Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection

41 C OGNITIVE L EARNING T HEORY Discovery Learning - Jerome Bruner Meaningful Verbal Learning - David Ausubel

42 C OGNITIVE L EARNING T HEORY  Discovery Learning 1. Bruner said anybody can learn anything at any age, provided it is stated in terms they can understand.

43 C OGNITIVE L EARNING T HEORY  Discovery Learning 2. Powerful Concepts (not isolated facts) a. Transfer to many different situations b. Only possible through Discovery Learning c. Confront the learner with problems and help them find solutions. Do not present sequenced materials.

44 C OGNITIVE L EARNING T HEORY  Meaningful Verbal Learning Advance Organizers: Newmaterial is presented in a systematic way, and is connected to existing cognitive structures in a meaningful way.

45 C OGNITIVE L EARNING T HEORY  Meaningful Verbal Learning When learners have difficulty with new material, go back to the concrete anchors (Advance Organizers). Provide a Discovery approach, and they’ll learn.

46 C OGNITIVISM IN THE C LASSROOM Inquiry-oriented projects Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses Curiosity encouraged Staged scaffolding

47 C RITIQUES OF C OGNITIVISM Like Behaviorism, knowledge itself is given and absolute Input – Process – Output model is mechanistic and deterministic Does not account enough for individuality Little emphasis on affective characteristics

48 S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY (SLT) Grew out of Cognitivism A. Bandura (1973) Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery SLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video games

49 S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY Learning From Models - Albert Bandura 1. Attend to pertinent clues 2. Code for memory (store a visual image) 3. Retain in memory 4. Accurately reproduce the observed activity 5. Possess sufficient motivation to apply new learning

50 S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY Research indicates that the following factors influence the strength of learning from models: 1. How much power the model seems to have 2. How capable the model seems to be 3. How nurturing (caring) the model seems to be 4. How similar the learner perceives self and model 5. How many models the learner observes

51 S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY Four interrelated processes establish and strengthen identification with the model: 1. Children want to be like the model 2. Children believe they are like the model 3. Children experience emotions like those the model is feeling. 4. Children act like the model.

52 S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model. When they identify with a nurturant and competent model, children feel pleased and proud. When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.

53 SLT IN THE C LASSROOM Collaborative learning and group work Modeling responses and expectations Opportunities to observe experts in action

54 C RITIQUES OF S OCIAL L EARNING T HEORY Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediating factors Suggests students learn best as passive receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed to being active learners Emotions and motivation not considered important or connected to learning

55 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism, framed around metacognition Knowledge is actively constructed Learning is… A search for meaning by the learner Contextualized An inherently social activity Dialogic and recursive The responsibility of the learner Lev Vygotsky Social Learning Zone of Proximal Development

56 S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM IN THE C LASSROOM Journaling Experiential activities Personal focus Collaborative & cooperative learning

57 C RITIQUES OF S OCIAL C ONSTRUCTIVISM Suggests that knowledge is neither given nor absolute Often seen as less rigorous than traditional approaches to instruction Does not fit well with traditional age grouping and rigid terms/semesters

58 M ULTIPLE I NTELLIGENCES (MI) Grew out of Constructivism, framed around metacognition H. Gardner (1983 to present) All people are born with eight intelligences: 1. Verbal-Linguistic 5. Musical 2. Visual-Spatial 6. Naturalist 3. Logical-Mathematical 7. Interpersonal 4. Kinesthetic 8. Intrapersonal Enables students to leverage their strengths and purposefully target and develop their weaknesses

59 MI IN THE C LASSROOM Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums Student-centered classroom Authentic Assessment Self-directed learning

60 C RITIQUES OF MI Lack of quantifiable evidence that MI exist Lack of evidence that use of MI as a curricular and methodological approach has any discernable impact on learning Suggestive of a departure from core curricula and standards

61 B RAIN -B ASED L EARNING (BBL) Grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism D. Souza, N. Caine & G. Caine, E. Jensen (1980’s to present) 12 governing principles 1. Brain is a parallel processor7. Focused attention & peripheral perception 2. Whole body learning8. Conscious & unconscious processes 3. A search for meaning9. Several types of memory 4. Patterning10. Embedded learning sticks 5. Emotions are critical11. Challenge & threat 6. Processing of parts and wholes 12. Every brain is unique

62 BBL IN THE C LASSROOM Opportunities for group learning Regular environmental changes A multi-sensory environment Opportunities for self- expression and making personal connections to content Community-based learning

63 C RITIQUES OF BBL Research conducted by neuroscientists, not teachers & educational researchers Lack of understanding of the brain itself makes “brain- based” learning questionable Individual principles have been scientifically questioned

64 O THER L EARNING T HEORIES OF N OTE Andragogy (M. Knowles) Flow (M. Czikszentmihalyi) Situated Learning (J. Lave) Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel) Conditions of Learning (R. Gagne)

65 H UMANIST All students are intrinsically motivated to self actualize or learn Learning is dependent upon meeting a hierarchy of needs (physiological, psychological and intellectual) Learning should be reinforced.

66 Stimulus Response


68 Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response

69 Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus

70 Unconditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus

71 RewardPunishment


73 ReinforcementPunishment Positive Negative Chocolate BarElectric Shock Excused from Chores No TV privileges

74 Fixed Variable RatioInterval

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