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Slide 1 Textbook For Nursing Assistants Chapter 8 - Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Textbook For Nursing Assistants Chapter 8 - Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Textbook For Nursing Assistants Chapter 8 - Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens

2 Slide 2 Bloodborne Pathogens

3 Slide 3 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. A bloodborne pathogen is a disease- producing microbe that is transmitted through: Blood Other body fluids Bloodborne Pathogens

4 Slide 4 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Body fluids are liquid or semi-liquid substances produced by the body such as: Blood Urine, feces Vomitus, saliva Drainage from a wound Sweat, tears Semen, vaginal secretions Cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid Breast milk Body Fluids

5 Slide 5 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Ways bloodborne pathogens are transmitted: Needle sticks (puncture wounds caused by dirty hypodermic needles) Cuts from contaminated, broken glass (such as that from a broken blood tube) Direct contact between infected blood and broken skin, mucous membranes, or the eyes Sexual intercourse Blood transfusions Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens

6 Slide 6 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. The following diseases are caused by bloodborne pathogens: Hepatitis B, C, and D Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Malaria Syphilis Ebola Hepatitis and AIDS pose the most occupational risk to a health care worker Diseases Caused by Bloodborne Pathogens

7 Slide 7 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, the organ that removes toxic substances from the bloodstream Caused by a viral infection, chemicals, drugs, or drinking alcohol Some infections are mild, producing no lasting effects on the liver Others are chronic and affect the liver’s ability to function over time. If the liver failure is severe, the person will die unless he or she receives a liver transplant Hepatitis

8 Slide 8 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Hepatitis A virus [HAV] Hepatitis B virus [HBV] Hepatitis C virus [HCV] Hepatitis D virus [HDV] Hepatitis E virus [HEV] Types of Hepatitis Virus

9 Slide 9 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Hepatitis A Virus: Transmission HAV is transmitted via the oral–fecal route Contaminated food or water Unclean hygiene habits Infected shellfish

10 Slide 10 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Illness caused is acute Complete recovery possible Effective vaccine available; recommended for the general public Handwashing important for preventing the spread of infection Hepatitis A Virus: Recovery/Prevention

11 Slide 11 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. HBV is transmitted through: Transfusion of infected blood or blood products Across the placenta from mother to infant Unprotected sexual intercourse Hepatitis B Virus: Transmission

12 Slide 12 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Health care workers are at risk for contracting HBV through: Needle stick injuries Cuts from contaminated objects Exposure of broken skin or mucous membranes to contaminated blood or other body fluids Hepatitis B Virus: Transmission

13 Slide 13 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Illness caused is acute Carriers are people who carry the virus but have no symptoms Effective vaccine available Recommended for general public Recommended by OSHA for health care workers Hepatitis B Virus: Recovery/ Prevention

14 Slide 14 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. HCV is transmitted through: Contaminated blood transfusions Needle stick exposures Mode of transmission is mainly bloodborne; but in more than 40% of people who are diagnosed with HCV, no obvious route of transmission is found In many cases, leads to liver failure and liver transplant becomes necessary Hepatitis C Virus: Transmission

15 Slide 15 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Illness caused by HCV infection is chronic and serious End-stage cirrhosis (a fatal liver disease) Liver failure Liver cancer Hepatitis C is the leading cause for liver transplantation in the United States Currently, no vaccine against HCV is available Hepatitis C Virus: Recovery/Prevention

16 Slide 16 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Bloodborne pathogen Found only in people who are already infected with HBV Vaccination against HBV protects against HDV Hepatitis D Virus: Transmission

17 Slide 17 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Spreads through the oral–fecal route HEV infection common in countries with poor sanitation controls No vaccination is available for HEV Hepatitis E Virus: Transmission

18 Slide 18 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. HIV is a bloodborne pathogen that: Is transmitted through body fluid and blood Causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] Affects the body’s immune system People with AIDS do not die from the virus itself. Instead, they die from infections that the body is no longer able to fight. To date, there is no cure for AIDS and no vaccine for HIV. HIV and AIDS

19 Slide 19 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. The human immune system Recognizes pathogens Destroys pathogens T cells are special white blood cells (leukocytes) One type of T cells recognize and kill cells infected by viruses Other type of T cells produce substances that help other cells in the immune system to defend the body against the pathogens HIV invades the T cells HIV uses the T cells to multiply and copy itself Eventually, HIV kills the T cell and moves on to repeat the process in other T cells HIV invades the cells that form new T cells, causing the body to produce T cells that cannot recognize pathogens The body then becomes unable to recognize and fight off infections, leading to the condition known as AIDS Cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

20 Slide 20 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. HIV and HBV pose an occupational risk to health care workers Health care workers come in contact with substances that carry these viruses Health care workers are not able to easily identify patients or residents who have these diseases The virus can live in a person’s body without causing signs or symptoms For these reasons, in the health care field, every patient or resident must be treated as if he or she may be infected with a bloodborne pathogen— thus, the term standard precautions Standard Precautions

21 Slide 21 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Gloves are worn if the POSSIBILITY exists that the hands could come in contact with blood or other body fluids. Gloves are also worn when touching any surface that could be contaminated with pathogens A waterproof gown is worn if the POSSIBILITY exists that your clothes could become soiled with blood or other body fluids A mask, face shield, and eye goggles are worn if the POSSIBILITY exists that blood or other body fluids could splash or spray Sharps, such as needles and razors, are disposed of properly in OSHA-approved containers Broken glass is never handled; it is swept or vacuumed up for disposal Spills of blood and other body fluids must be cleaned up promptly with an approved cleaning agent Personal protective equipment must be worn when cleaning up spills Hands must be washed when you remove your gloves. Handwashing is the single most important method of preventing the spread of infection! Standard Precautions

22 Slide 22 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Employees must receive training on the risks associated with bloodborne pathogens and on the methods they can use to safeguard themselves Employers must make the hepatitis B vaccine available to workers who are at risk, free of charge Employers must provide adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) as required by the employee’s duties Environmental control methods, such as special ventilation systems, procedures for the disposal of liquid waste, and procedures for handling contaminated linen and trash must be in place to protect both the employees and the patients or residents An updated exposure control plan must be in place in case an employee is exposed to blood or other body fluids from a patient or resident OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

23 Slide 23 Airborne Pathogens

24 Slide 24 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Airborne pathogens: disease-producing microbes that are transmitted through the air Infection spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and another person breathes the air containing the suspended pathogens Infections that are transmitted in this way include measles, chickenpox, and tuberculosis (TB) Vaccines are available to prevent measles and chickenpox Currently no vaccine is available for TB, HIV, or HBV Pose an occupational risk to a health care worker Airborne Pathogens

25 Slide 25 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Infection caused by bacteria present in the sputum of an infected person; spread by airborne droplets when the person coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings People who have close, frequent contact with a person who has TB are most likely to contract the disease Infects the lungs, kidneys, or bones TB is usually diagnosed following a routine skin test (used to screen for the disease) or chest x- ray Tuberculosis (TB)

26 Slide 26 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Patients or residents known or suspected to be infected with an airborne pathogen are to be placed in private rooms with special ventilation systems Health care workers should wear masks when caring for patients or residents with known or suspected tuberculosis (TB) If the health care worker has not been exposed to measles or chickenpox (and is therefore not immune), then he or she is at risk for these diseases, and a mask should be worn when caring for patients or residents with measles or chickenpox Airborne Precautions

27 Slide 27 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. A surgical mask should be placed over the patient’s or resident’s face if he or she must be transported from one location to another Transport of the patient or resident should be kept to a minimum All precautions for preventing transmission of TB should be implemented if the patient or resident is known or suspected to have TB Airborne Precautions

28 Slide 28 End of Presentation


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