Presentation on theme: "Preparing for Ramadaan Dar us Salaam. Definition & Wisdom Linguistic Meaning of Saum “ صوم ” Restrain, withhold, leave, forgo, hold back. إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ"— Presentation transcript:
Definition & Wisdom Linguistic Meaning of Saum “ صوم ” Restrain, withhold, leave, forgo, hold back. إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنْسِيًّا “Indeed I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to (any) man. (19:26) Islamic Meaning of Saum “ صوم ” A form of worshipping Allah where one withholds from food, drink, intimacy and other nullifiers from fajr to sunset. Wisdom behind Fasting
Status & History Status One of the 5 pillars. History Fasting was made obligatory in the second year after the Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) At first, fasting was a choice, one could either fast or feed but then fasting was ordained by Allah as obligatory. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam fasted 9 Ramadaans.
Ruling From the Qur’an: فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ “So whoever sights (the new moon of) the month, let him fast it” (2:185) From the Sunnah: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, "Observe Saum (fast) on sighting the crescent and terminate it on sighting it (the new moon), but if the sky is cloudy before you, then complete the number (thirty days) of the month.'‘ (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) Consensus of the Ummah: it is obligatory to fast, and whoever rejects this, they have committed an act of kufr. When does it become Obligatory? Sighting of the Ramadaan Hilal (moon). فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ “So whoever sights (the new moon of) the month, let him fast it” (2:185) No calculations Sighting applies to the human eye or other tools (telescope, airplane etc) Completion of Sha’baan up to 30 days.
Ruling Cont. The Period (Time) of the Fast وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ “ And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread (of night). Then complete the fast until the night (sunset). (2:187) Places where the days are extra long: One should fast no matter how long or short the day is. If one is unable to fast, he may break the fast and make-up on another day. Places where there is no real night or day: Calculate the length of fast by reviewing schedule of closest nations.
Conditions Intention Sincerity, done to please Allah and to act upon the Sunnah. Forgo specific things that invalidate the fast Food, drink, intimacy Specific Time From Fajr to Maghrib Specific Person Muslim, mature, same, ability, resident, not indisposed, post child birth Specific Pre-conditions:
Fasting in Previous Nations/Peoples The Peoples of Tawheed, Followers of the Prophets يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ “O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous” (2:183) Fast of Dawood (alayhi salaam) The most beloved fasting to Allah was the fasting of (the Prophet) David, who used to fast alternate days. (Bukhari) Day of ‘Aashoora (10 th of Muharram) Musa (alayhi salaam) fasted on this day when Muslims of Bani Isra’eel were delivered. Ancient Egyptians To purify souls, people would fast on special holidays. Their priests would fast from one to six weeks annually in addition to the holidays. Greeks People would fast to make “Gods” happy. They would fast consecutive days before wars, leading up to the wars and to the victory.
Fasting in Previous Nations Cont. Chinese Would fast several days when troubles came in their lives. Tibetans Would fast for 24 hours, non-stop. They would not consume any food nor swallow their saliva. Jews Musa (alayhi salaam) fasted for 40 days. They would fast on sad occaisons, such as death/mourning, sickness and danger. Some would fast for one week consecutively. Christians Jesus (alayhi salaam) fasted for 40 days. Staying away from eating anything animate. Fasting on Certain holidays. Muslims Fasts made obligatory in 2 AH. Prophet Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam fasted for 9 Ramadaans.
The Virtues of Fasting Pillar of Islam This form of Ibaadah is especially for Allah. The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, "Allah the Exalted and Majestic said: `Every act of the son of Adam is for him, except As-Siyam (the fasting) which is (exclusively) for Me, and I will reward him for it.' (Bukhari and Muslim) Private Ibaadah: it is between the servant and their Lord, there is no possibility to show off. Open Reward Produces a sensitivity to Allah’s Watch, Alert to Allah – Taqwa Fasting is a shield (Bukhari and Muslim) Taqwa Sweeter than musk Double the Pleasure Expiation for certain sins and violations Intercessor on the day of Resurrection Ar-Rayyan A deed that leads to Paradise Eliminates family, financial and neighbor problems
Other Benefits of Fasting A chance to battle your desires and discipline yourself. An opportunity to purify your soul. A chance to bridle your tongue: Vain talk, Complaining, Character assassination, Dishonor, Curse, Backbiting, Rumor mongering, Foul language, Lying, False testimony An opportunity to overcome sins and subjugate temptation: Cheating, betrayal, treachery, trickery, scheming, major sins, adultery, riba, bribery, stealing, taking other’s money unjustly, revenge, spying/eavesdropping, abuse, pornography. Strengthen our penchant to do good Salat, seek knowledge, listen, zakaat, charity, help others, organize programs, teach/da’wah, tahajjud, Qur’an, du’aa, thikr. A chance to change your life and lifestyle Strengthen your ability to say NO! toy our runaway desires A spiritual boot camp: You are forced to let go of the world, to be patient and learn self-discipline. Develop a strong will, determination: become a man/woman with a mission. Develop stellar moral conduct.
Other Benefits Cont Develop stellar moral conduct: Righteousness, taqwa, excellence, hard work, cooperation, concern/care for others, love, patience, self-auditing, taubah. Helps to achieve a sense of inner peace: Battle between the self reproaching soul (nafs al-lawwaamah) and the evil doing soul (nafs al ammarah bis-soo’). Produces a sense of unity. People of different races, genders, ages, and status. One goal, feeling, soul, concern (taqwa) وَإِنَّ هَـٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاتَّقُونِ “And indeed this, your religion, is one religion, and I am your Lord, so fear Me” (23:52) Imagine the Unity when we break our fast. Generates good health
The Month Ramadaan The month in which the Qur’an was sent down The gates of Paradise are opened The gates of Hellfire are locked shut The Leading devils are chained The Night of Qadr People are set free from the Hellfire O Seeker of Good come forward: Reminds of something? Night Prayer in Ramadan Forgiveness for previous sins
Ramadaan Evasion Intentionally not fasting in Ramadaan تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ “These are the limits of Allah, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His verses (ordinances) to the people that they may become righteous.” (2:187) تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ “These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah – it is those who are the wrongdoers.” (2:229) The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, Once I was sleeping, two men came to me and took me by my arm and brought me to a rugged mountain. They said: Climb. I said: I’m unable (to climb). They said: (go ahead) We’ll make it easy for you. So I went up until I reached the middle of the mountain. There I heard loud screams. I asked: What are these voices? They said: This is the howling of the people of the Hellfire. Then they lead me (to another place) where I was with people who were suspended by their heels. They mouths were torn apart from the corners (of their mouths) dripping with blood. I asked: Who are these (people)? They said: Those who broke their fasts before the proper timing of breaking their fast. (An-Nasaa’i, ibn Hibbaan, Al Haakim)
Ramadaan Evasion Intentionally not fasting in Ramadaan This is a major sin. Punishment in an Islamic state: Imprisonment, flogging etc. Many scholars consider this worse than adultery or drinking. Some even wonder if the person is still a Muslim.
Sighting of the Hilal & Related Matters Establishing the beginning of the month of Ramadaan and Shawwaal. فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ “So whoever sights (the new moon of) the month, let him fast it” (2:185) Fasting becomes obligatory when one or both of the following happen: Sighting of the Hilal Realizing 30 days in Sha’baan or Ramadaan. When the Hilal for Ramadaan is sighted, Ramadaan begins. When the Hilal for Shawwaal is sighted, Ramadaan ends. Proof: The Messenger of Allah sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, "Observe Saum (fast) on sighting the crescent and terminate it on sighting it (the new moon), but if the sky is cloudy before you, then complete the number (thirty days) of the month.'‘ (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) Beginning of Ramadaan is established by sighting of one mature, sane, able Muslim. Beginning of Shawwaal is established by sighting of two mature, sane, able Muslims. Calculations cannot be used. Do not fast on the last day (i.e., 30 th day) of Sha’baan if the hilal waas not seen on the 30 th night. Global vs. Local Sighting: When the hilal is seen in one place in the world: Should all Muslims fast? Or Should Muslims fast according to their own local sighting? There is a difference of opinion in regards to global vs local The Shar’ee terms: ittihaad-ul-mataali vs ikhtilaaf-ul-mataali Majority opinion: Global sighting.
Fasting of Ramadan: Rules & Regulations The Four Essentials Pillars of the Fast: Intention وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ “And they were not commanded except to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion.” (98:5) “Surely all actions are but driven by intentions and verily, every man shall have but that which he intended.” (Bukhari and Muslim) Abstaining from acts that break the fast Intentional eating and drinking, intimacy, self-gratification, things classified with food, cupping, intentional vomiting, indisposed women, post child birth. The Time Period: From the real fajr to the sunset وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ “And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread (of night). Then complete the fast until the night (sunset). (2:187) The Faster: Muslim, Mature, Sane, Able
Some Disliked Practices while Fasting The following actions are discouraged not because of their own demerit but because it leads to one nullifying his/her fast. Exaggeration in taking water into nose and mouth during wudu. Kissing or any intimate contact. Staring at the opposite gender. Thinking or daydreaming about intimacy. Chewing gum or tobacco. Tasting food unless necessary. Continuous fasting without food. Swallowing sputum or saliva. Smelling incense.
Prerequisites for the Obligation to Fast? Islam Puberty/Encouragement for Youngsters Sanity Residency Good Health Void of Preventive Reasons / Women
Actions that Void the Fast Complete intimacy Intentional eating or drinking or related issues. (i.e., blood transfusion, IV tube, nutritional supplements etc) Intentional vomiting The lady indisposed Self-gratification by choice Eating something that is not nourishing (salt) If one has the intention, while he is fasting, to break the fast, he in effect voids the fast even if he does not actually eat anything Cupping of blood (hijaama) Blood donation Post child birth bleeding
Actions that Void the Fast Kaffarah: free slave or fast two consecutive monhs or feed 60 people (each 1.24 lbs of food). ActionExpiation Complete IntimacyMake up and kaffarah Intentional eating/drinking/related acts. Make up Indisposed womenMake up Self gratification by choice Make up Cupping of bloodMake up Post child birth bleedingMake up Blood donationMake up
Who has permission not to fast? The ease of Islam Difference between divine law and man-made law Not shortsighted From the Creator Practical: not unrealistic Remove discomfort: Ease: Comfortable, gentle: Fear of making our deen hard for us
Who has permission not to fast? Legitimate Excuses 7) Pregnant – fast if OK; if fasting is harmful for baby then make up and feed one person for each day Make up 8) Mother feeding baby-same as above Make up 9) Senile – no fasting___ 10) Medical injections 11) Compulsion – a) rescue/fire, drowning, accident, etc b) Overcome by hunger, thirst / dizzy, faint c) Forced to break fast Make up 12) Wet dream or unintentional discharge ___ 1) Unintentional eating/drinking ___ 2)Travel – type: distance; fast?; length of stay? Make up 3) Disabled – old age; incurable illness; medical excuse. Feed one person for each fast ( 1.4 lbs of food), one at a time or all at once. Fidyah 4) Sick – 3 statesMake up 5) Indisposed, fasting prohibited Make up 6) Post child birth – fasting prohibited Make up
The Etiquettes of Fasting Eating a pre-dawn meal Minimum meal Timing Doubt concerning the time of fajr Hastening in breaking the fast. Supplications at the time of breaking the fast Guarding against acts that are incompatible with fasting Using Siwaak or toothbrush Being generous Reciting and studying the Qur'an. Exerting even more efforts during the last ten days
The Etiquettes of Fasting Mandatory No lying, backbiting, rumor mongering, gossip, cheating, scheming, treachery, betrayal, trickery, do not bear false testimony. Recommended and Encouraged Delay suhoor, hasten iftar Break fast with dates then water Make duaa at breaking of fast No vain talking, cursing Restrain your gaze Increase your duaa, thikr, salaat, sadaqah Read more Qur’an daily Reflecting on Allah’s Blessing that he/she was about to fast (gratitude) Safeguarding one’s tongue, eyes, ears, stomach, privates, hand, feet, from sin Provide food/drink for others to break their fast Use miswak, or frequently clean teeth Work harder in the last 10 days
Permissible Acts During the Fast Pouring water over one's self and submersing one's self in water Applying kohl or eye-drops or anything else to the eyes. Kissing for one who has the ability to control himself Any type of injection Cupping to drain blood Rinsing the mouth and nose Those things which one could not protect one's self from (saliva, dust…) May eat, drink, and perform sexual intercourse until fajr May remain in a state janabah even after the start of Fajr time
Increasing some Specific forms of Ibaadah Objective: To enrich our emaan وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَآتَاهُمْ تَقْوَاهُم “And those who are guided—He increases them in guidance and gives them their righteousness.” (47:17) هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوا إِيمَانًا مَعَ إِيمَانِهِمْ “It is He who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their (present) faith.” (48:4) Pray Taraweeh prayers: at least 8 or 10 then witr. One can pray: 11, 13, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 39, 41, 47 Laylatul Qadr and last ten nights Merits of Laylatul Qadr: Qur’an revealed on night of Qadr Better than 1000 months of worship Descent of angels Night of Peace A complete surah dedicated to it Night of prayer, duaa, Qur’an and thikr
Increasing some Specific forms of Ibaadah I’tikaaf During the last ten nights Devote yourself to more ibaadah –i.e., Qur’an, salaat, reflection, duaa, thikr No intimacy Cannot leave masjid unless necessary No tasks outside masjid (i.e., janaazah, job etc) Cannot leave tent and linens in the masjid Extra sadaqah in Ramadaan Read more Qur’an Zakaatul Fitr
What is the ruling on one who eats, drinks, or has intercourse, thinking that the sun has set or that fajr has not occurred? What about forgetfulness? What about Making Up Missed Days of Ramadan?