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CP306: Industrial Ecology 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini “The goal is cradle to reincarnation, since if one is practising industrial ecology correctly there.

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Presentation on theme: "CP306: Industrial Ecology 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini “The goal is cradle to reincarnation, since if one is practising industrial ecology correctly there."— Presentation transcript:

1 CP306: Industrial Ecology 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini “The goal is cradle to reincarnation, since if one is practising industrial ecology correctly there is no grave.” - Kumar Patel

2 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini

3 Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste material Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited

4 Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste material Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm)

5 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste material Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm)

6 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste material Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Automation Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm)

7 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: An example from the present (and future): Strip mining for coal

8 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Over 1000 miles of streams have been buried by strip mine waste In Appalachian Mountains that run from Southern New York to Northern Georgia and Alabama through 13 states.

9 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini In 2000, 60 million tons out of the almost 170 million tons of coal mined in West Virginia were from strip mines. Source: 75% of West Virginia's streams and rivers are polluted by mining and other industries. 300,000 acres of hardwood forest in West Virginia have been destroyed by mountaintop removal practiced in strip mining.

10 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini An example from the present (and future): Mining for phosphate Source: Open-pit phosphate mined in Idaho Citezen trying to protect the Horse Creek in Florida from phosphate mining

11 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini An example from the present (and future): Forest industry waste Source: ‘most "wood" companies only handle one type of wood and burn the rest.’ These burn piles are 15 to 20 ft high.

12 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: More than 500 factories (mostly textiles) line the banks of the 200-mile Citarum river, near the Indonesian capital of Jakarta. An example from the present (and future): Factory waste

13 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/england/ stm Anglian Water, one of the UK's biggest water companies, has been fined £200,000 for polluting River Crouch with raw sewage after Roy Hart, an Essex fisherman, took out a private prosecution. Court also ordered Anglian Water to pay Roy Hart £9,500 to cover his legal costs. An example from the past: Factory waste

14 - Degradation of ecosystems (forest, fresh water, marine, etc.) - Upsetting the carbon cycle, resulting in global warming and climate change and the consequences - Depletion of the ozone layer - Pesticide, heavy metals and other persistent toxic chemicals like DDT and PCBs poisoning the web of life - Loss of clean air - Genetically modified (GM) food Ecocides of Manmade origin: 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini

15 - what more? Ecocides of Manmade origin: 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini

16 Source: A cartoonist’s view of life on earth with such ecosystem destroying industries

17 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm)

18 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited End-of pipe treatment Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm)

19 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Nuclear industry waste Corroding nuclear waste drums on seabed in UK territorial waters dumped between 1950 and Source: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ stm Los Alamos National Laboratory has disposed of about 13.5 million ft 3 of radioactive and chemical solid wastes in ‘Material Disposal Area G’ since Source:

20 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: huge-pile-of-com Computer industry waste

21 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: A cartoonist’s view of civilized life on earth

22 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution

23 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour Unlimited Waste Products Unlimited Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution

24 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Let’s take a look at how Nature produces and what Nature does with its waste.

25 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Example: Forest ecosystem Source: The components of ecosystem are those physical things that contain energy and nutrients.

26 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Example: Forest ecosystem

27 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Example: Forest ecosystem

28 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Example: Forest ecosystem

29 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Another example: Fresh water ecosystem

30 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour No Waste Products No Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution

31 Unlimited Raw material Unlimited Energy Capital Labour No Waste Products No Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Recycling Zero effluent solution Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution Waste mining

32 Unlimited Energy Capital Labour No Waste Products No Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Raw material (only to start) Industry (cradle-to-grave design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution Recycling Waste mining

33 Unlimited Energy Capital Labour No Waste Products No Environmental degradation 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Unlimited Raw material (only to start) Industry (cradle-to-reincarnation design paradigm) Dematerialization and substitution Recycling Waste mining Industrial Ecology

34 No materials beyond those required to start the system - Dematerialization (using less material) is practised - Substitution (of a relatively more abundant and safe material for one that is scarce and/or toxic) is practised No waste is produced - Recycling within the system is practised - Waste mining in practised Energy efficiently utilized (possibly solar power) Idealised Industrial Ecosystem 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: S. Manahan, Industrial Ecology, 1999

35 "One of the most important concepts of industrial ecology is that, like the biological system, it rejects the concept of waste." Industrial Ecology: 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: T. Graedel and B. Allenby, Industrial Ecology, 1995

36 Let us take a look at a functional industrial ecosystem Industrial Ecosystem: 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini

37 Sugar refinery Sugar Agricultural farm Molasses Bagasse Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane

38 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane

39 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol Compound Fertilizer Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane

40 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol PaperPulp Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Black liquor Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer

41 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol Alkalai Pulp Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Alkalai recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper

42 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol Alkalai Pulp Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Alkalai recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper

43 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Cement mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant SugarAlcohol Cement Alkalai Pulp Agricultural farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Alkalai recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper

44 - The industrial symbiosis took 40 years to develop. - It has been spontaneously developed first through internal investments, and then through cooperation with partners in the regions. - Developing by-product exchanges is beneficial in many ways (reduced emissions, reduced disposal costs and revenue from by-product utilization). - Improving environmental standards (ISO9001 certification in 1998) - However, it is counter to traditional business trends such as focusing on their core competence and avoiding development of “distracting” profit centers. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Q. Zhu, E.A. Lowe, Y. Wei, and D. Barnes, Industrial Symbiosis in China: A Case Study of the Guitang Group. J. of Industrial Ecology 11(1): 31-42

45 Symbiotic interactions between organisms: Commensalism: one population benefits and the other is not affected 01 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Mutualism: both populations benefit and they need each other for survival Protocooperation: both populations benefit but the relationship is not obligatory Amensalism - one is inhibited and the other is not affected Competition – one’s fitness is lowered by the presence of the other Parasitism – one is inhibited and for the other its obligatory

46 For yet another functional industrial ecosystem, go to the presentation on The Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg, Denmark by Jørgen Christensen Consultant to the Symbiosis Institute Industrial Ecosystem: 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Source: Industrial%20Ecology/Presentations/11%20Christensen.pdf

47 Let us summarise what we have studied about industrial ecology

48 producers (makes its own food by itself) primary consumers herbivores (animals who survive on plants only) secondary consumers carnivores (animals who eat only other animals) tertiary consumers carnivores ultimate consumer omnivores (animals who eat both plants and animals) decomposers (breakdown dead plants and animals) Metabolism in Natural ecosystems cyclization of materials

49 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini CharacteristicNatural ecosystems Basic unitOrganism Material pathways Closed loops RecyclingEssentially complete Material fateTend to concentrate, such as atmospheric CO 2 converted to biomass by photosynthesis ReproductionA major function of organisms is reproduction Source: S. Manahan, Industrial Ecology, 1999

50 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Primary producer Manufacturer Consumer Raw materials wastes Metabolism in Current Industrial Systems cradle-to- grave design paradigm (cradle) (grave)

51 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini CharacteristicNatural ecosystemsCurrent Industrial systems Basic unitOrganismFirm / Industrial unit Material pathways Closed loopsLargely one way RecyclingEssentially completeOften very low Material fateTend to concentrate, such as atmospheric CO2 converted to biomass by photosynthesis Dissipative (produce materials too dilute to use, but concentrated enough to pollute) ReproductionA major function of organisms is reproduction Production of good and services is the prime objective, not reproduction Source: S. Manahan, Industrial Ecology, 1999

52 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Current industrial systems are a threat to long-term habitability - environmental toxication (heavy metals) - persistence chemicals (PCBs; CFCs) - depletion of nonrenewable resources (Cu; Cr; Oil) - physical and chemical degradation (top soil) - lowering species diversity (loss of irreplaceable segment of total gene pool of living organisms) - perturbation of natural processes (CO 2 ;N 2 ) - vulnerability (cultivating few strains of crops; single breed of livestock; non-human scale structures)

53 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Primary producer Manufacturer Consumer Secondary material processor Preferred Metabolism in Industrial System cradle-to- incarnation design paradigm Raw materials (cradle) wastes (grave) cyclization of materials

54 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Primary producer Manufacturers Consumers Raw materials wastes Secondary material processor Metabolism in Industrial Ecosystems cradle-to- incarnation design paradigm cyclization of materials

55 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Assessment of Industrial metabolism in an industrial ecosystem Materials productivity = Economic output Material input Energy productivity = Economic output Energy input Recycling = Amount of recycled materials Amount of recycled plus virgin materials

56 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Measures of Efficiency % waste = Mass waste Mass of (product + byproduct + waste) A smaller percentage waste indicates a more efficient process.

57 19 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini To improve the (eco-)efficiency of an Industrial (Eco)system, - minimize material consumption - maximize the efficiency of energy consumption - reduce consumption of nonrenewable materials - produce materials that are recyclable to a maximum extent - manufacture components that are durable and amenable to refurbishing and reuse - maximize the intensity with which goods are used and services are provided - “zero defects” in manufacturing - reduce the dispersion of toxic substances

58 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Life-cycle Assessment Inventory analysis provides information regarding consumption of material and energy resources (at the beginning of the cycle) and releases to the environment (during and at the end of the cycle). Impact analysis provides information about the kind and degree of environmental impacts resulting from a complete life cycle of a product or activity. Improvement analysis provides measures that can be taken to reduce impacts on the environment or resources. Source: S. Manahan, Industrial Ecology, 1999

59 08 Feb 2008 R. Shanthini Improvement analysis must consider - selection of materials, if there is a choice, that would minimise waste generation - use of recyclable components - alternate pathways for the manufacturing process or for various parts of it Source: S. Manahan, Industrial Ecology, use of reusable and recyclable materials


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