Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Water pollution A case of Hong Kong. Water conditions in HK Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Marine water.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Water pollution A case of Hong Kong. Water conditions in HK Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Marine water."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water pollution A case of Hong Kong

2 Water conditions in HK Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Marine water quality Marine water quality Marine water quality Marine water quality River water quality River water quality River water quality River water quality

3 Can you think of some impacts of water pollution? Make swimmer sick Make swimmer sick Kill marine life Kill marine life Give off bad smell Give off bad smell

4 Impact of water pollution Red tides are blooms of microscopic algae which produce a characteristic pink or reddish-brown colouration in seawater. Red tides are blooms of microscopic algae which produce a characteristic pink or reddish-brown colouration in seawater. Red tides reduce sunlight penetration, and at night or when the algae die, deplete DO in the water. Red tides reduce sunlight penetration, and at night or when the algae die, deplete DO in the water. Some species may also release toxic substances. Red tides can cause massive fish kills in marine fish culture zones through removal of DO or direct poisoning. Some species may also release toxic substances. Red tides can cause massive fish kills in marine fish culture zones through removal of DO or direct poisoning.

5 Beach water quality All very poor beaches are found in Tsuen Wan area All very poor beaches are found in Tsuen Wan area

6 Annual ranking system for beaches Rank E. coli count per 100mL* Minor illness rate** (Cases per 1000 swimmers) WQO Compliance Good < 24 undetectableComplied Fair 25 – 180 < 10 Complied Poor to 15 Not complied Very Poor > 610 >15 Not complied *Geometric mean E. coli count calculated based on all the data collected during the bathing season. ** Gastrointestinal and skin complaints

7 Beach monitoring programme to assess compliance with the Water Quality Objective; to assess compliance with the Water Quality Objective; to detect any change in beach water quality; to detect any change in beach water quality; to identify polluted beaches that need remedial actions; to identify polluted beaches that need remedial actions; to evaluate pollution abatement programmes; to evaluate pollution abatement programmes; to decide on the opening of beaches; and to decide on the opening of beaches; and to advise the public on the beach water quality status. to advise the public on the beach water quality status.

8 Marine water quality Hong Kong is divided into 10 Water Control Zones (WCZs) and each WCZ has a set of Water Quality Objectives (WQOs). Hong Kong is divided into 10 Water Control Zones (WCZs) and each WCZ has a set of Water Quality Objectives (WQOs). Dissolved Oxygen (depth-average)  Not less than 4mg/L in 90% of the samples Dissolved Oxygen (depth-average)  Not less than 4mg/L in 90% of the samples Dissolved Oxygen (bottom)  Not less than 2mg/L in 90% of the samples Dissolved Oxygen (bottom)  Not less than 2mg/L in 90% of the samples Unionized Ammonia Annual mean  not exceeding 0.021mg/L Unionized Ammonia Annual mean  not exceeding 0.021mg/L Total Inorganic Nitrogen Ranging from annual mean  not exceeding 0.1mg/L in Southern Water Control Zone to not exceeding 0.7mg/L in Deep Bay Water Control Zone Total Inorganic Nitrogen Ranging from annual mean  not exceeding 0.1mg/L in Southern Water Control Zone to not exceeding 0.7mg/L in Deep Bay Water Control Zone E.coli Annual geometric mean  not exceeding 610/100mL in secondary contact recreational areas E.coli Annual geometric mean  not exceeding 610/100mL in secondary contact recreational areas

9 Black spots of marine pollution Poultry waste from the farms nearby caused eutrophication in a stream (Tai Tong) Oyster farms at the Deep Bay are abandoned due to serious water pollution and the decline of importance in oyster farming Water pollution in PRD estuary due to intensive industrial development Sometimes, you can "see" water pollution like the discharge of coloured bleaching and dyeing wastewater into a nullah as shown in the photo. This photo shows the coloured water of Rambler Channel caused in the past by the discharge of bleaching and dyeing effluent into the sea. Most typhoon shelters receive substantial pollution loadings from storm stormwater drains which receive raw sewage and industrial effluent via improper connections. Some discharges are from vessels themselves. Some vessel users also dump garbage into the water. As water movement is confined in a typhoon shelter, pollutants cannot be flushed out easily, thus exacerbating the pollution problems.

10 River water quality EPD regularly monitors water quality at more than 80 sampling stations in over 30 rivers and streams in the territory. EPD regularly monitors water quality at more than 80 sampling stations in over 30 rivers and streams in the territory. In situ field measurements are performed and water samples are collected for further laboratory analyses mostly on a monthly basis. In situ field measurements are performed and water samples are collected for further laboratory analyses mostly on a monthly basis. The monitoring covers more than 40 parameters including physico-chemical characteristics, organics, nutrients, toxic metals and coliform bacteria. The monitoring covers more than 40 parameters including physico-chemical characteristics, organics, nutrients, toxic metals and coliform bacteria. The rates of annual compliance with the statutory WQOs are assessed based on the data obtained during the year. The rates of annual compliance with the statutory WQOs are assessed based on the data obtained during the year.

11 Water Quality Index (WQI) for Rivers based on the level of dissolved oxygen, 5- day Biochemical Oxygen Demand and ammonia-nitrogen based on the level of dissolved oxygen, 5- day Biochemical Oxygen Demand and ammonia-nitrogen

12 Improvements arising from enforcing the Water Pollution Control Ordinance Regions Before control (kg BOD/day) At end of 2005 (kg BOD/day) Percentage reduction Eastern New Territories (sum of 7 rivers) 13,3652,56681% Northwestern New Territories (sum of 11 rivers) 20,0953,99080% Lantau Island (Mui Wo River) % Southwestern New Territories and Kowloon (sum of 4 rivers) 7, % Total (23 rivers) 40,6797,06783%

13 The Livestock Waste Control Scheme introduced in 1987 and further revised in introduced in 1987 and further revised in designated a series of Prohibition Areas in which the keeping of livestock was completely banned after 24 June designated a series of Prohibition Areas in which the keeping of livestock was completely banned after 24 June Farmers outside the Prohibition Areas were permitted to continue rearing livestock, but they were required to properly dispose of their waste and treat their effluent Farmers outside the Prohibition Areas were permitted to continue rearing livestock, but they were required to properly dispose of their waste and treat their effluent technical help: technical help: –publishing a code of practice and guidelines on waste treatment options –setting up a private farm demonstration treatment plant. established a free livestock waste collection service established a free livestock waste collection service made financial help available for farmers to install their own waste treatment facilities. made financial help available for farmers to install their own waste treatment facilities. provided incentives for farmers for whom the new system was too difficult: it offered eligible farmers an ex gratia allowance if they chose to close down their livestock business completely. provided incentives for farmers for whom the new system was too difficult: it offered eligible farmers an ex gratia allowance if they chose to close down their livestock business completely.

14 Government policies – three-pronged approach Controlling at source Controlling at source Providing sewers Providing sewers Collecting and treating sewage Collecting and treating sewage

15 Controlling at source Water Pollution Control Ordinance Water Pollution Control Ordinance Specifications of meeting standards are contained in licences Specifications of meeting standards are contained in licences Implementation by regular inspections, response to complaints and prosecutions Implementation by regular inspections, response to complaints and prosecutions

16 Proving sewers Extend public sewer networks in NT and new development areas Extend public sewer networks in NT and new development areas It prepares sewerage masterplans and the works are carried by Drainage Services Department It prepares sewerage masterplans and the works are carried by Drainage Services Department

17 Collecting and treating sewage Sewage treatment plant in Shatin Procedures of treating waste water Storm Water and Sewage Collection

18 HATS Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Harbour Area Treatment Scheme Stage 1: sewage from Kowloon and part of HK  Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works (SISTW) for chemical treatment (late 2001) Stage 1: sewage from Kowloon and part of HK  Stonecutters Island Sewage Treatment Works (SISTW) for chemical treatment (late 2001) Stage 2: sewage from N & SW HK island  SISTW for chemical treatment (2A) and biological treatment (2B) Stage 2: sewage from N & SW HK island  SISTW for chemical treatment (2A) and biological treatment (2B)

19 Implementation of HATS Whilst Government will shoulder the cost of constructing Stage 2, the full operating costs will have to be recovered through. Whilst Government will shoulder the cost of constructing Stage 2, the full operating costs will have to be recovered through sewage charges. sewage charges The public consultation demonstrated that the majority of respondents support this application of the "polluter pays" principle. With the introduction of the sewage charge, dischargers are required to pay the cost of the sewage services according to the quality and quantity of their discharge. The public consultation demonstrated that the majority of respondents support this application of the "polluter pays" principle. With the introduction of the sewage charge, dischargers are required to pay the cost of the sewage services according to the quality and quantity of their discharge. Domestic Households The only charge is the Sewage Charge (SC) at a prescribed rate of $1.20 per cubic metre of water consumed, with exemption for the first 12 cubic metres, in a four- month billing period. Domestic Households The only charge is the Sewage Charge (SC) at a prescribed rate of $1.20 per cubic metre of water consumed, with exemption for the first 12 cubic metres, in a four- month billing period. Trade, Business and Manufacture The charges include a Trade Effluent Surcharge (TES) Trade, Business and Manufacture The charges include a Trade Effluent Surcharge (TES)

20 Improvements made No. of beaches meeting Water Quality Objective for bathing water increased from 24 in 1995 to 34 in No. of beaches meeting Water Quality Objective for bathing water increased from 24 in 1995 to 34 in No. of river monitoring stations with bad or very bad water quality dropped from 52% in 1988 to less than 15% in recent years. No. of river monitoring stations with bad or very bad water quality dropped from 52% in 1988 to less than 15% in recent years. Toxic metal discharges reduced from 7,000 kg/day in 1993 to 2,000 kg/day in 2000 Toxic metal discharges reduced from 7,000 kg/day in 1993 to 2,000 kg/day in % of sewage around Victoria Harbour receives chemical treatment due to HATS 75% of sewage around Victoria Harbour receives chemical treatment due to HATS Dissolved oxygen in harbour waters increased by 10% Dissolved oxygen in harbour waters increased by 10% Drop in red tides in Tolo Harbour from 43 in 1988 to less than 20 in recent years Drop in red tides in Tolo Harbour from 43 in 1988 to less than 20 in recent years

21 Regional issues Regional cooperation with Guangdong Government Regional cooperation with Guangdong Government 15-year-plan to clean up Deep Bay 15-year-plan to clean up Deep Bay In mid-2003, a regional water quality management strategy was formulated In mid-2003, a regional water quality management strategy was formulated


Download ppt "Water pollution A case of Hong Kong. Water conditions in HK Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Beach water quality Marine water."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google